1 Professor, Public and International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Law, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


International law is the product of sovereignties and in a real sense, of agreements among states. But it has nowadays been asserted that humanity and laws and rights belong to it, to the extent that we can talk about the  humanity of international law. In other words, it has been spread in every areas of international law such as international humanitarian law, international criminal law, diplomatic and consular law, international environmental law etc. Therefore, the possibility of conflict between norms and rules of international law is visible in some legal regimes and its branches, and in a wider scope, in international legal order. In this regard, what is controversial in contemporary era of enforcement of international law is conflict and contrast between state immunity and jus cogens norms. This would be seen as a discussion between value and reality. Hence, the current paper aims to address this point and also contemporary transformations regarding these norms.


رسول‌پور، امیرارسلان و عابدینی، عبدالله (1390). «سیر به سوی قاعده‌سازی و انگاره‌های معاصر: رویة قضایی بین‌المللی در آینة دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری»، مجلة پژوهش‌های حقوقی، ش 19.
زمانی، سیدقاسم (1377). «جایگاه قاعدة آمره در میان منابع حقوق بین‌الملل»، مجلة حقوقی، ش 22.
زمانی، سیدقاسم (1384). حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، مؤسسة مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.
سادات میدانی، سیدحسین (1383). «ارزیابی عملکرد محاکم داخلی آمریکا در انتساب اعمال گروه‌های لبنانی و فلسطینی به جمهوری اسلامی ایران»، ماهنامةاطلاع‌رسانی حقوقی، ش 4.
ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا (1355). حقوق معاهدات بین‌المللی، چ 3، گنج دانش.
ظاهری، علیرضا (1383). «تحولات قاعدة مصونیت دولت: تأثیر قانون صلاحیت دادگستری جمهوری اسلامی ایران و قانون مبارزه با تروریسم ایالات متحدة امریکا»، مجلة حقوقی، ش 30.
عبداللهی، محسن (1383). «خسارات تنبیهی در حقوق بین‌الملل»،مجلة حقوقی، ش 30.
عبداللهی، محسن و شافع، میرشهبیز (1386). مصونیت قضایی دولت در حقوق بین‌الملل، معاونت پژوهش، تدوین، و تنقیح قوانین و مقررات ریاست جمهوری، چ 2.
عبداللهی، محسن و خلف رضایی، حسین (1389). «معادلة تعارض اصل مصونیت دولت با قواعد آمرة حقوق بشر»، نامة مفید، ش 79.
کدخدایی، عباسعلی و داعی، علی (1390). سلب مصونیت دولت: بررسی تحلیلی قوانین و مقررات ایالات متحدة آمریکا در سلب مصونیت از جمهوری اسلامی ایران نزد محاکم این کشور، چاپ و انتشارات نهاد ریاست جمهوری.
Aust, Anthony (2005). Handbook of International Law, Cambridge University Press.
Bankas, Erbest K. (2005). The State Immunity Controversy in International Law, Springer.
Bartsch, Kerstin and Elberling, Björn (2003). Jus Cogens vs. State Immunity, Round Two: The Decision of the European Court of Human Rights in the Kalogeropoulou et al. v. Greece and Germany Decision, German law Journal, 4(5).
Bederman, David J. (2004). International Law in Antiquity, Cambridge University Press.
Bianchi, Andrea (2008). Human Rights and the Magic of Jus Cogens, European Journal of International Law, 19(3).
Bianchi, Andrea (1999). Immunity Versus Human Rights: The Pinochet Case, European Journal of International Law, 10(2).
Brand, Ronald A., Sovereignty (2002). The State, the Individual, and the International Legal System in the Twenty First Century, Hastings International & Compparative Law Review, Vol. 25.
Bröhmer, Jürgen (1997). State Immunity and The Violation of Human Rights, Kluwer Law International.
Brownlie, Ian (1998). Principles of Public International Law, Oxford University Press, 5th Pub.
Buchanan, Allen (2010). The Legitimacy of International Law, in The Philosophy of International Law, Samantha Besson and John Tasioulas (edi), Oxford University Press.
Caplan, Lee M. (2003). State Immunity, Jus Cogens and Human Rights: A Critique of Normative Hierarchy Theory, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 97.
De Schutter, Olivier (2010). International Human Rights Law: Cases, Materials, Commentary, Cambridge University Press.
De Sena, Pasquale and De Vittor, Francesca (2005). State Immunity and Human Rights: The Italian Supreme Court Decision on the Ferrini Case, European Journal of International Law, 16(1).
Gattini, Andrea (2011). The Dispute on Jurisdictional Immunities of the State before the ICJ: Is the Time Ripe for a Change of the Law?, Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 24.
Hafner, Gerhard et al. (2006). State Pratice Regarding State Immunity, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Jaenicke, Gunther (1984). International Public Order, in Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Vol. 7, Elsevier Science Publishers.
Kadelbach, Stefan (2006). Jus Cogens, Obligation Erga Omnes and other Rules- The Identification of Fundamental Norms, in Christian Tomuschat and Jean-Mac Thouvenin (eds.), The Fundamental Rules of the International Legal Order, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Meron, Theodor (2006). The Humanization of International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Orakhelashvili, Alexander (2002). State Immunity in National and International Law: Three Recent Cases Before the European Court of Human Rights, Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 15.
Potesta, Michele (2010). State Immunity and Jus Cogend Violations, The Alian Tort Statute Against The Backdrop of The Latest Developments in The Law of Nations, Berkeley Journal of International Law, 28(2).
Reinisch, August (2008). The Immunity of International Organizations and the Jurisdiction of their Administrative Tribunals, Chinese Journal of International Law, 7(2).
Shaw, Malcolmn N. (2008). International Law, 6thed., Cambridge University Press.
Sohn, Louis B. (1977). The Human Rights Law of the Charter, Texas International Law Journal, 129, 129-130.
Sucharitkul, Sompong (1999). Immunity of States, in International Law: Achievement and Prospects, Mohammed Bedjaui, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Tams, Christian J. (2005). Enforcing Obligations Erga Omnes in International Law, Cambridge University Press.
Tomuschat, Christian and Thouvenin, Jean-Mac (eds.) (2006). The Fundamental Rules of the International Legal Order, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Trapp, Kimberley N. (2011). State Responsibility for International Terrorism, Oxford University Press.
Wallac, Rebecca (2002). International law, 4th ed, Sweet & Maxwell.
Reparations for Injuries suffered in the Service of the United Nations, I.C.J Reports, 1949.
Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, I.C.J Report, 1970.
Elettronica Sicula S.p.A. (ELSI), (United States of America v. Italy), ICJ Reports, 1989.
Difference Relating to Immunity from Legal Process of a Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, ICJ Reports, 1999.
Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium), ICJ Reports, 2001.
Al-Adsani v. UK, ECHR, 2002.
Fogarty v. UK, ECHR, 2002.
McElhinney v. UK, ECHR, 2002.
Kalogeropoulou v Greece and Germany, ECHR, 12 December 2002.
German Supreme Court: Distomo Massacre Case, BGH - III ZR 245/98 (June 26, 2003).
Bouzari v. Islamic Republic of Iran, Court of Appeal for Ontario (Canada), 2004.
Armed Activiteis on the Territory of the Congo (New Application, 2002), (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda), 2006, I.C.J. Reports.
Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro (2007.
Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy), Counter Claim, 6 July 2010.
Bennet v. Islamic Republic of Iran, District of Columbia Circuit, September 10, 2010, No. 09-5147.
OSS Nokalva, Inc. v. European Space Agency, District of New Jersey, June 29, 2010, No. 09-3601.
Al-Jedda v. UK, ECHR, (2011).
Al-Skeini v. UK, ECHR, (2011).
Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy), Application by The Hellenic Republic for Permission to Interevene, Order, 4 July 2011.
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961.
Draft articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, with commentaries, 2001, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2001, Vol. II, Part Two.
Risk Insurance Terrorism Act 2002.
United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property, 2004.
Conclusions of the work of the Study Group on the Fragmentation of Interantional Law: Difficulties arising from the Diversification and Expansion of Interantional Law, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2006, Vol.II, Part Two.
Framentation of Interantional Law: Difficulties arising from the Diversification and Expansion of Interantional Law,Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission: Finalized by Martti Koskenniemi, A/CN.4/L.682, 13 April 2006.
Resolution on the Immunity from Jurisdiction of the State and of Persons Who Act on Behalf of the State in case of International Crimes, Institute of International Law, Session of Naples, 2009.
Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Martin Scheinin, A/65/258, 6 August 2010.