1 Professor, Public and International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran


The “principle of prevention” in respect of economic benefit and ecological aspect is a golden rule. The reasons for this are as follows: 1. because of legal and technological reasons, establishing a relationship between the harmful act with damages to the environment is so difficult, 2. due to special nature of the environment, the compensation for such damages is often impossible, and in case of possibility, it would require exorbitant cost as well as  long period of time. By considering the above facts, deployment of new environmental principles, especially ‘The precautionary principle’ for protecting the environment and strengthening deterrence policy has gained a  central importance. In this paper, an attempt has been made to explain this principle from different dimensions and its position in international environmental law.


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2-       گروه صلح کرسی حقوق سبز، صلح و دموکراسی یونسکو، 1389، "حقوق زیست محیطی بشر"، تهران، نشر دادگستر
3-       وکل، فیلیپ، 1387، "همسویی حقوق معاهدات و مسئولیت بین‌الملل در پرتو رأی 25 سپتامبر دیوان بین‌الملل دادگستری"، مترجم سید علی هنجنی، مجلۀ تحقیقات حقوقی، شمارۀ 25و26، ص183تا229
A) Books
1. Birinie, Patricia W. and Alan E. Boyle. (1995) International Law and The Environment, oxford, oxford university press, First Edition.
2. Hey.E, The Protection of Marine Ecosystem, Science Technology and International Law, (1997), Hauge Yearbook of International Law.
3. Kiss. Alexander and Shelton. Dinah,(2007), Guide to International Environmental Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.
4. Kumar, K.S.Kavi, Dissemination Paper.8, center of excellance in Environmental Economics, 2011, Madras school of Economic.
5. Sands. Philippe, Principles of International Environmental Law, (2003), Second Edition, Combridge University Press.
6. Sands. Philippe, Pleading and the Pursuit of International Law, Nuclear test (II), (newzeland V. France.), (1998), In A.Anghie and G.Strugess edition.
7. sirinskiene, Agne, The Status of Precautionary Principle, Moving towards A Rule of Customary Law (2009), Mykolas Romeris University Faculty of Law.
B) Articles
1.Cameron. James, Abouchar. Juli, "The Precoutionary Principle: Afundamental Principle of Law and Policy For The Protection of Global Environment" (1991), Boston College International Law Comparative Law Review. Vol.14.
2.Fitzmaurice. Malgosia, "The Gabacikovo-Nagymaros Case, The Law of treaties" (1998), Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol.11.
3. Hickey.J and V.R.Walker, "Refining the Precautionary Principle in International Environmental Law" (1997), Va. Envtl.Ly.
4. Recuerda. Miguel A, "Risk and Reason in the European Law", (2006) European Food and Feed Law Review.5.
5. Solgan.L, "The General Obligation to Prevent transboundary Harm and its Relation to four key Environmental Principles", (1997), Austrian Review of International and European Law, Vol.3.
6. Wybeth.Doma, "The Precautinary Principle". (1996). Asser Institute Icelandic, Legal journal ulfljotur, Vol.49.
B) Internet Site
1. Comentaries to the Drafts Articles on Responsibility of State for Internationaly wrongful act, Adopted by the International Law Commission at its fifty-third Session, (2001) Available at:
2. United Nations Environment Programme, training Manual on Internatioanl Environmental Law, Available at:
5. httpk://
6. httpl://
C) Documents
1. Convention for the conservation of southern Bluefin tuna, Adopted 10May,1993.
2. Declaration of the united nation, Coference in The Human Environment, 1972.
3. IAEA Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, 1960.
4. Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a transboundary cotext (ESPOO) 25.
5. Monteral Protocol on Substances That Deplete the ozone Layer, Montreal, September16,1987.
6. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992.
7. United Nations Framework vonvention on Climate change Newyork, May,9,1992.
8. convention on biological oliversity, Rio dejaneiro, 1992.
9. Convention on Long. Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Geneva, 13November,1979
10. Stockholm Declaration of the united Nations conference on the Human Envirorment, June 16, 1972.
11. The 1972 World Heritage Convention.
12. Cartagna Protocol on Bio-safety, 2000
13. Stockholm Convention on Persistent organic Pollutants.Stockholm, May22,2001
D) Cases
1. Gabacikovo – Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovokia), 1997
2. Case concerning Aerial Herbieide spraying (Ecuador V.Colombia), 2008
3. Case concerning pulpmills on the River Uruguay (Argentina V.uruguay), 2007
4. Legality of the threat or use of Nuclear weapons. 1996.