1 Professor, Public and International Law Department, Faculty of law and Political Sciences University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD in International Law, Faculty of law and Political Sciences University of Tehran,Tehran, Iran


The threshold of non-international armed conflicts is a criterion in terms of which the internal disturbances and tensions e.g. riots, and both isolated and sporadic acts of violence, are no longer characterized as civil wars. This term was introduced into the literature of International Law in 1949, following the formation of the Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions. The impact of the above-mentioned concept is directly in connection with the sovereign rights of States, particularly the exclusive jurisdiction of the national judicial authorities. Consequently, its effect on managing the conflicts and dealing with the operations of anti-government armed forces, has always been one of the most controversial parts of different diplomatic conferences, including those led to the creation of the Common Article 3, Article 8 of the Rome Statute and especially the Additional Protocol II to Geneva conventions.


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