Assistant Professor and Director of Public law Department, Faculty of Law, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran, Iran


Deprived of their right to self-determination, Palestinians have lived under military occupation in the most deplorable inhuman conditions for over half a century. None of the peaceful efforts with respect to achieving independence and liberty for the Palestinian people has been successful in the past. Despite how the nature of their resistance is viewed by a number of Western countries, international instruments including Human Rights documents and Resolutions of the UN General Assembly, have recognized the right to self-determination as the right to independence and the right of establishment of a State by populations under colonization and foreign occupation in a general sense, as well as acknowledged these rights for the people of Palestine in particular. As a result, these instruments have legitimized the right of these populations to resist, using all necessary means and methods in accordance with principles of the UN Charter, in order to attain independence. Since the right to self-determination is considered erga omnes as well as jus cogens, not only the resistance of the people of Palestine is lawful and legitimate, but the moral support and material aid of other States are authorized in international instruments.


  1. الف) فارسی

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    1. حبیب‌زاده، توکل (1383). «پایان نظام نمایندگی انگلستان در فلسطین و شکل‌گیری رژیم صهیونیستی»، در مجموعه مقالات همایش فلسطین از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل، گروه حقوق دانشگاه شهرکرد، صص 256ـ 319.

    ب) منابع لاتین

    ـ کتب و مقالات

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    ج) اسناد بین‌المللی و منطقه‌ای

    A/RES/1514 (XV), Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 14 December 1960,

    A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947,

    A/RES/2105 (XX), 20 December 1965.

    A/RES/2533 (XXIV), 10 December 1969.

    A/RES/2625 (XXV), 24 October 1970, available at: a25r2625.htm.

    A/RES/2625 (XXV), 24 October 1970, Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, , available at:

    A/RES/2708, 14 December 1970.

    A/RES/2787 (XXVI), 6 December 1971.

    A/RES/2936 (XXVII), 13 December 1972.

    A/RES/3070 (), 30 November 1973.

    A/RES/3103 (XXVIII), 12 December 1973, 28th Session, Basic principles of the legal status of the combatants struggling against colonial and domination and racist regimes, available at:

    A/RES/3236 (XXIX), 22 November 1974.

    A/RES/3237 (XXIX), 22 November 1974.

    A/RES/3314 (XXIX), 1974.

    A/RES/35/1227 (C), December 1980.

    A/RES/39/146 (B), 14 December 1989.

    A/RES/43/177, 15 December 1988.

    A/RES/52/250, 13 July 1998, “Participation of Palestine in the work of the United Nations”.

    A/RES/6649, 30 November 1970.

    A/RES/69/165, 18 Dec. 2014 , available at:

    A/RES/69/241, 19 Dec. 2014, available at:

    A/RES/73/43, 3 December 1982, Importance of the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination and of the speedy granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples for the effective guarantee and observance of human rights, available at: http://www.

    A/RES/ES-7/4, 19 August 1989.

    African (banjul) Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, 27 June 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force 21 October 1986, available at:

    Commission on Human Rights (2005), "Situation in Occupied Palestine", Resolution 2005/1 7 April, in Report on the sixty-first session, 14 March-22 April 2005, E/CN.4/2005/134 (Part I), available at: /2/G0514744.pdf

    ECOSOC/Res/1978 (LIX), 31 July 1975.

    Human Rights Committee, General Comment 12 (1994), Article 1 (Twenty-first session, 1984), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 12.

    ICJ Report (2004), Advisory Opinion on Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestine Territory, 9 July.

    ICJ Reports (1971), Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970) (Advisory Opinion).

    ICJ Reports (1975), Western Sahara (Advisory Opinion).

    ICJ Reports (1995), Timor Oreantal, 

    ICJ Reports 1970, Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain) (Second Phase).

    Organization of Islamic Cooperation, (1999), Convention of the Organization of the Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism, (accessed on 6/3/2015)

    Palestine National Council (1988), Declaration of Independence, Algiers, 15 November.

    Recommandation générale XXI (48), adoptée à la 1147e séance, le 8 mars 1996.

    S/RES/242 (1967) 22 November 1967, available at: 

    S/RES/465 (1980), 1 Mars 1980, available at:

    Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, 1993, available at:

    Yearbook ILC, 1966, vol. II, available at: