PhD in International Law, Faculty of law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Establishing the European Union which goes back to 1950s and its success in achieving valuable goals puts forward this question that whether those successes can transfer to international legal order. In fact, advent of some regimes gradually in international legal order has led to so-called phenomenon of special or self-contained regimes. One of the best and prominent instances in this regard is the European Union. This regional organization has constituted effective norms and mechanism under which any invocation to general international law is on the wide extent limited. This paper is seeking to draw the characterization of EU legal order itself as a legal system and as a special regime in international law. In this respect, analysis of latter particular effect in the context of general international law will be present.


الف) فارسی
- کتاب‌ها
1. زمانی، سیدقاسم (1384). حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، مؤسسۀ مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.
2. کدخدایی، عباس (1380). ساختار و حقوق اتحادیۀ اروپایی، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر میزان.
3. ______ (1380). «نگرشی به ساختار دیوان دادگستری اروپایی و نقش آن در روند همبستگی اتحادیه»، مجلة دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، شمارۀ 51.
4. ______ (1382). «قانون اساسی اتحادیة اروپایی»، مجلۀ حقوقی بین‌المللی، شمارۀ بیست و نهم.
5. ویرالی، میشل (1364). «تفکری بر تئوری حقوق فراملی»، ترجمۀ ناصر صبح‌خیز، مجلۀ حقوقی، شمارۀ 3.
ب) انگلیسی
- Books
6. Chalmers, Damian & Adam Tomkins (2007). European Union Law: Text and Materials, Cambridge University Press.
7. Fassbender, Bardo (2009). The United Nations Charter As the Constitution of the International Community, MartinusNijhoff Publishers.
8. Tillotson, John & Nigel Foster (2003). Text, cases and Materials on European Union Law, 4thed, Cavendish Publishing.
- Article
9. Barents, René (2009). "The Precedence of EU Law from the Perspective of Constitutional Pluralism", European Constitutional Law Review, 5.
10. Crawford, James (2009). "Continuity and Discontinuity in International Dispute Settlement: An Inaugural Lecture", Journal of International Dispute Settlement, Vol. 1.
11. Dupuy, Pierre-Marie (1999). "The Danger of Fragmentation or Unification of the International Legal System and the International Court of Justice", New York University Journal of International Law & Politics, Vol. 31.
12. Frahm, Karin O. (2001). "Multiplication of International Courts and Tribunals and Confilicting Jurisdiction", Max Planck Yearbook of United Nation Law, Vol. 5.
13. Grimm, Dieter (2009). "Comments on the German Constitutional Court’s Decision on the Lisbon Treaty: Defending Sovereign Statehood against Transforming the European Union into a State", European Constitutional Law Review, 5.
14. Higgins, Rosalyn (2006). "A Babel of Judicial Voices? Ruminations from the Bench", International & Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 55.
15. Lamy, Pascal (2006). "The Place of the WTO and its Law in International Legal Order", European Journal of International Law, Vol. 17.
16. Lazowski, Adam (2008). "Constitutional Tribunal on the Preliminary Ruling Procedure and the Division of Competences Between National Courts and the Court of Justice Order of 19 December 2006", European Constitutional Law Review, 4.
17. O’Connell, Mary Ellen (2005). "Controlling Countermeasures", in, International Responsibility Today, Essays in Memory of Oscar Schachter, Maurizio Ragazzi (ed), MartinusNijhoff Publishers.
18. Shelton, Dina, (2006). "Normative Hierarchy in International Law", American Journal of International Law, Vol. 100.
19. Shermers, Henry G. (1980). "Application of International Law by Court of Justice of the European Communities", Essays on the Development of the International Legal Order: In Memory of Jankheer Haro Frederik, H. F. van Panhuys, Pieter Jan Kuyper (ed), MartinusNijhoff Publishers.
20. Sicilianos, L. A. (2010). "Countermeasures in Response to Grave Violations of Obligations Owed to the International Community", in, J. Crawford, A. Pellet & S. Olleson (eds), The Law of International Responsibility Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
21. Simma, Bruno and Dirk Pulkowski (2006). "Of Planets and the Universe: Self-contained Regimes in International Law", European Journal of International Law, Vol. 17.
22. Simma, Bruno (2009). "Universality of International Law from the Perspective of a Practitioner", European Journal of International Law, Vol. 20.
23. Sorensen, Max (1983). "Autonomous Legal Orders: Some Consideration Relating to a System Analysis of International Organizations in The World Legal Order", International & Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 32.
24. Tomuschat, Christian (2009). "The Kadi Case: What Relationship is there between the Universal Legal Order under the Auspices of the United Nations and the EU Legal Order?", Year book of European Law, Vol. 28.
25. Wessel, Ramses A. (2009). "The Dynamics of the European Union Legal Order: An Increasingly Coherent Framework of Action and Interpretation", European Constitutional Law Review, Vol. 5.
26. Ziegler, Katja S. (2011). "International Law and EU Law: between Asymmetric Constitutionalisation and Fragmentation", In, Research Handbook on the Theory and History of International Law, Alexander Orakhelashvili (ed), Edward Elgar Publishing.
27. Zumbansen, Peer (2006). "Transnational Law", In: Jan Smits (ed.), Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Cases
28. Accordance with Iinternational Law of Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion, 2010.
29. Appeal Relating to the Jurisdiction of the ICAO Council (India v. Pakistan), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1972.
30. Belilos v. Switzerland, Judgment of 29 April 1988, ECHR Series A (1988) No. 132.
31. Case 240/83 ADBHU [1985] ECR 531.
32. Case 294/83 Les Verts v. Parliament, [1986] ECR 1339.
33. Case 302/86 Commission v Denmark [1988] ECR 4607.
34. Case 314/85 Foto-Frost [1987] ECR 4199.
35. Case C-176/03, Commission of the European Communities v Council of the European Union.
36. Case C-2/88 Imm. Zwartfeld and Others [1990] ECR I-3365.
37. Case C‑213/96 Outokumpu [1998] ECR I‑1777.
38. Case C‑36/98 Spain v Council [2001] ECR I‑779.
39. Case C-459/03. Commission of the European Communities. v. Ireland, 30 May 2006.
40. Case T-315/01, Yassin Abdullah Kadi v. Council and Commission, Judgement of the Court of 21September 2005; Case T-306/01, Ahmed Ali Yusuf and Al Barakaat International Foundation v. Council and Commission, Judgement of the Court of 21 September 2005.
41. Commission of the European Communities v French Republic, Case 232/78, Judgment of the Court of 25 September 1979.
42. Effect of Awards of Compensation Made by the United Nations Administrative Tribunal, ICJ Reports, 1954.
43. Federal Republic of Germany and others v Commission of the European Communities- Migration policy - Competence of the Community, 1987, Joined cases 281, 283, 284, 285 and 287/85.
44. Flaminio Costa v E.N.E.L, Case 6/64, Judgment of the Court of 15 July 1964.
45. Joined Cases C-402/05 P and C-415/05 P, 3 September 2008.
46. Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece Intervening), Judgment of 3 February 2012.
47. Kadi II v Commission, 30 September 2010.
48. Korea - Measures Affecting Government Procurement (19 January 2000) WT/DS163/R.
49. Loizidou v. Turkey, Preliminary Objections, Judgment of 23 March 1995, ECHR Series A (1995) No. 310.
50. Opinion 1/91 [1991] ECR I-6079, Opinion of the Court of 14 December 1991,Opinion delivered pursuant to the second subparagraph of Article 228 (1) of the Treaty - Draft agreement between the Community, on the one hand, and the countries of the European Free Trade Association, on the other, relating to the creation of the European Economic Area.
51. Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, ICJ Reports, 1949.
52. United States-Anti Damping of Act 1916, WT/DS136/AB/R, 2000.
53. Van Gend& Loos v Netherlands Inland Revenue Administration, Case 26-62, Judgment of the Court of 5 February 1963.
54. Yassin Abdullah Kadi and Al Barakaat International Foundation v. Council of the European Union and Commission of the European Communities, Grand Chamber, 3 September 2008.
55. Yvonne van Duyn v Home Office, Case 41-74, 4 December 1974.
- Cases
56. Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Official Journal C 83 of 30.3.2010.
57. Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, with commentaries, 2001, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2001, Vol. II, Part Two.
58. Fragmentation of Interantional Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of Interantional Law, Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission: Finalized by MarttiKoskenniemi, A/CN.4/L.682 13 April 2006.
59. Responsibility of International Organizations, Report of International Law Commission, 2009.
60. Treaty Establishing the European Community (Consolidated version 1997), Official Journal C 340 of 10 November 1997.
61. Treaty on European Union (consolidated text), Official Journal C 325 of 24 December 2002.
- Internet Source