Assistant prof., Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Pardis Branch, Pardis, Iran


In the history of the United Nations, in many cases, the Legitimacy of Security Council Resolutions, has been challenged. These challenges has been raised by states that has been affected by the Security Council's decisions. Notwithstanding that states are responsible for implementing the Security Councils’ Resolutions, they impose their will and interpretation on implementation of Security Council Decisions. Interpretation by states may raise concerns about questioning Security Council role and efficiency in international peace and security maintenance. Growing in the number of Security Council resolutions and the question of violation of certain fundamental human rights by these resolutions has led to brought actions against these resolutions before courts of the European Union. In their judgments, The Courts have examined the legality of measures under the resolutions that has resulted. Although these judgments have not resulted in nullifying a Resolution, they have led to fragmentation of the international law.


الف) فارسی
- کتاب‌
1. شایگان، فریده (1380). شورای امنیت سازمان ملل متحد و مفهوم صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی، چاپ اول، تهران: انتشارات دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی.
- مقاله‌ها
2. شریفی طرازکوهی، حسین و مدرس‌سبزواری، ساسان (1390). «ضرورت و امکان نظارت قضایی بر عملکرد شورای امنیت در نظام حقوقی ملل متحد»، فصل‌نامۀ سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، سال اول، شمارۀ چهارم، 7-62.
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ب) انگلیسی
- Books
6. De wet Erika, Nollkaemper A. (2003). review of the security Council by member States, Intersentia, Antwerp.
7. De wet, Erika (2004). The chapter VII of the United Nations Security Council, North Americ, hart Publishing.
8. Gowlland-Debbas, Vera, Tehindrazanarivelo, Djacoba Liva (2004). national implementation of UN Sanctions, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Brill Publishers.
9. Simma Bruno, Khan Daniel Erasmus, Notle George, Paulus Andreas (2012). The Charter of United Nations: A commentary, Oxford University press, Third Edition.
10. Tzanakopoulos, Antonios (2011). Disobeying Security Council Countermeasures Against wrongful  Sanctions, Oxford University Press.
- Articles
11. De Wet, Erika (2011). "Human rights Considerations in the Enforcement of Security Council Sanctions in the EU Legal Order", collected courses of the Academy of European Law, Oxford University Press.
12. De Wet, Erika (2013). "From Kadi to Nada: Judicial Techniques Favoring Human Rights over United Nations Security Council Sanctions", Chinese Journal of International Law, No. 12, 787-807.
13. Doehring, Karl (1997). "Unlawful Resolutions of the Security Council and their Legal Consequences", 1 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, 91-109.
14. Gill, Terry (1995). "Legal and Some Political Limitations on the Power of the U.N. Security Council to Exercise its Enforcement Powers under Chapter VII of the Charter", 26 NYIL, 33-138.
15. Happold, Matthew (2011). "Some remarks on Disobeying the security Council", Blog, EJIL: Talk! Blog of the European Journal of International Law,[accesed 12 October 2012].
16. Juline, kokott, christoph, sobotta (2012). "The Kadi case –constitutional core values and international law-finding the balance?", The European 6-Journal of International Law, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1015-1024.
17. Kreczko, Alan.J. (1981). "The Unilateral Termination of UN sanctions Against Southern Rhodesia by United Kingdom", Virginia journal of international law, Vol. 21.
18. Mariani, Paola (2009). "The implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions imposing economic sanctions in the EU/EC legal system: Inter pillar issues and judicial review", Bocconi Legal Studies Research Paper, No. 1354568, 1-21.
19. Martenczuk, Bernd (1999). "The Security Council, The International Court and Judicial Review: What Lessons from Lockerbie?", EJIL, Vol. 10, No. 3, 517-547.
20. Pavoni, Riccardo (2009). "Freedom to Choose the Legal Means for Implementing UN Security Council Resolutions and the ECJ Kadi Judgment: A Misplaced Argument Hindering the Enforcement of International Law in the EC", yearbook of European law, Vol. 28, Issue 1, 626-636.
21. Portela Clara (2009). "Implementation of United Nations Sanctions, towards Fragmentation", International Journal, 10, 13-30.
22. Tzanakopoulos, Antonios (2010). "United Nations Sanctions in Domestic Courts: From Interpretation to Defiance in Abdelrazik v. Canada (Minister of Foreign Affairs)", 8 Journal of International Criminal Justice, 249, 165-183.
- Cases
23. Case Concerning Legal Consequences for states of the continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) Notwithstanding Security council Resolution 276, ICJ Report 16, Advisory Opinion, 1971.
24. Case concerning Certain expenses of the United Nations, ICJ Reports 151, Advisory Opinions, 1962.
25. Case Concerning Reparation for injured Suffered in the service of the UN, ICJ Reports 174, Advisory Opinion, 1949
26. Case Concerning Questions of Interpretation andApplication of the 1971 Montreal Convention Arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v United States of America, ICJ Reports 114, Provisional Measures, 1992.
27. Case Concerning Questions of Interpretation andApplication of the 1971 Montreal Convention Arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie, LibyanArab Jamahiriya v United States of America, ICJ Reports 115, Preliminary Objections, 1998.
28. Case Concerning Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention Arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie, LibyanArab Jamahiriya v United States of America, ICJ Reports 9, Preliminary Objections, 1998.
29. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia reports, Prosecutor v. DuskoTadica/k/a, Appeal on jurisdiction, Case No. IT-94-1-AR72, 1995.
30. European Court of Human Rights, Nada v. Switzerland, Appeal No. 10593/08, Grand Chamber, 12 September 2012.
31. Court of First Instance of the European Communities, Yassin Abdullah Kadi v Council of the European Union and commission of the European Communities, ECR II-3649, 2005.
32. Court of the European Communities, Yassin Abdullah Kadi, Al Barakat International Foundation v Council of the European Union and commission of the European Communities Grand Chamber, ECR I-6351, 3 September 2008.
33. European Court of Human Rights-ECHR, Al-Jedda v The United Kingdom,applic no 27021/08, 7 July 2011.
34. Switzerland, Federal Supreme Court, First Public Law Chamber, Youssef Mustapha Nada v. SECO, Case No. 1A 45/2007BGE, 133 II 450, 2007, ILDC 461 (CH 2007).
35. Federal Court of Canada, AbousfianAbdelrazik v. Minister of Foreign Affairs, 4 June 2009.