1 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Visiting Prof., Department of International Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

3 Assistant Prof., Department of International Law, Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran

4 Associate Prof., Department of International Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran


State immunity roots in the sovereignty and equality of States. Namely, the immunity means the impossibility of exercising the jurisdiction of domestic Courts over foreign States. Following the developments of the human rights, interventions have made in the internal affairs of States under the responsibility to protect doctrine that created challenges on the State sovereignty, and has raised in mind the question of whether the responsibility to protect doctrine will be a barrier for the implementation of the principle of the State immunity? In answering this question, by the separation of the procedural rules from the substantive rules can be seen the procedural rules such as State immunity do not conflict with the substantive rules governing the nature of the claim. The real source of the human rights litigation is, ignoring the forum State to enforce its jurisdiction in relation to the human rights cases, and to the extent that is concerned to the human rights violations, the State immunity and jus cogens values do not conflict with each other.


. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
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ب) مقالات
احمدواستانی، عبدالغنی (1363). «شرح مختصر بیانیه‌های الجزایر»، مجلۀ حقوقی، شمارۀ اول، دفتر حقوقی بین‌المللی.
پروین، خیرالله (1378). «حقوق بشر و تأثیر آن بر حاکمیت ملی دولت‌ها»، فصل‌نامۀ حقوق، مجلۀ دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، دورۀ 38، شمارۀ 4.
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عباسی‌اشلقی، مجید (1389). «دگرگونی مفهوم مداخلۀ بشردوستانه در هزارۀ نو»، ماهنامۀ اطلاعات سیاسی و اقتصادی، شمارۀ 2-281.
فروغی‌نیا، حسین (1390). «بین‌المللی‌شدن حقوق بشر و دگردیسی در مفهوم حاکمیت دولت‌ها در عصر جهانی‌شدن»، فصل‌نامۀ مطالعات حقوق بشر اسلامی، شمارۀ 1.
فلسفی، هدایت‌الله (1375). «جایگاه بشر در حقوق بین‌الملل معاصر»، مجلۀ تحقیقات حقوقی، دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
Bradly, Curtis A. & Goldsmith, Jack L. (2009). Foreign Sovereign Immunity, Individual Official and Human Rights, 13 Green Bag 2D.
Brownlie, Ian (1983). Principles of Public International Law, Third Ed, Oxford.
Fox, Hazel QC (2008). The Law of State Immunity, Oxford University Press.
Harris, David John (1998). Cases & Materials on International Law, Fifth ed., Sweet & Maxwell, London.
Giuttari, Theodore R. (1970). The American Law of Sovereign Immunity, An Analysis of Legal Interpretation, New York, Praeger.
Roberts, Anthea (2010). The ATS and TVPA in Comparative Perspective, Public Policy Rountable the Alien Tort Statute and U.S Enforcement of Foreign Judgments.
Rensmann, Thilo (2009). The Impact of International Human Rights Law on the Immunity of States and Their Officials, in Menno, T., The Impact of Human Rights Law on General International Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 151–70.
B) Articles
Peters, Anne (2009). "Humanity as the A and Q of Sovereignty", The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 513-544.
Bakery, Adyar (2013). "The Law is closing in on Mahinda Rajapaksa from all directions", Vol. 4, Issue. 33, available at www.The Weekend
Caplan, Lee. M. (2003). "State Immunity, Human Rights and Jus Cogens: A Critique of the Normative Hierarchy Theory", The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 97.
Humes-Schulz, Stacy (2008). "Limiting Sovereign Immunity in the Age of Humman Rights", Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 21.
Guterres, Antonio (2008). "Millions Uprooted, Saving Refugees and the Displaced", Foreign Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 90.
Kazickas, Annalina (2014). "Humanitarian Intervention, The Responsibility to Protect, and The Need to Better Protect Our Citizens", available at http://global
Novogrodsky, Noah Benjamin (2008). "Immunity for Torture: Lessons from Bouzari v. Iran", The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 18, No. 5, EJIL.
Potsta, Michele (2010). "State Immunity and Jus Cogens Violation: The Alien Tort Statute Against the Backdrop of the Developments in the Law of Nations", Berkeley Journal of International Law, Vol. 28: 2.
Sena, Pasquale De & Vittor, Francesca (2005). "State Immunity and Human Rights: The Italian Supreme Court Decision on the Ferrini Case", The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No. 1, EJIL.
Sikkink, Kathryn (1993). "Human Right, Principled Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America", International Organization, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 47, Issue. 03, pp. 411-441.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2004). "Sovereignty and Power in a Networked World Order", Stanford Journal of International Law, pp. 283-327.
C) International Documents
Al-Adsani v. United Kingdom, Judgment of 21 November 2001, ECHR Reports 2001-XI, Eur. Ct.H.R.79.
Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Dem.Rep.Congo v. Belg), I.C.J Reports 2002, 41 ILM, available at < >..
Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (New Application: 2002) (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda), I.C.J Reports 2006.
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), The responsibility to protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2001), available at
Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece Intervening), Judgment of 3 February 2012, available at:
Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Changes (2004), A More Secure World: Our Shared responsibility, Report, New York.
The UN Convention on States Immunity and their Properties (2004).
The UN General Assembly (2004), Fifty-Ninth Session, Vol.I: Resolutions, No. 49 (A/49/59).
The Working Group on Juridictional Immunities of States and their Property (1999), Vol. II (part 2), Annex (A/CN.4/L.576).
Underhill v. Hernandez (1897), 168 U.S 250, U.S Supreme Court, No. 36:252.