1 Ph.D. Student of International Law, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., School of International Relations (SIR), Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Law, Garmsar Payame Noor University, Semnan, Iran


Universalism is defined as applying the rules of international law equally for all states or entities, while particularism is defined as a situation wherein a state or an entity seeks to apply its particular values and norms even if they are assumed against or inconsistent with the universal rules. The particularistic states or entities seek to find the means and methods through which they can have the possibility of escaping the dominance of international law wherever they find the international law against their interests and values, or at least they can bring it to their own accord. As two key actors in international relations, the EU and the US by adopting positions and practices that differ from the universal rules have institutionalized a particularistic approach to international law. The US and the EU take advantages of similar practices in their own particularistic approach. Applying double standards, using alternative interpretations and unilateralism are some examples of such practices. American Particularism is based on sovereignty and the reliance on military power and this has led the US particularistic approach suffers from the exemptionalism. In contrast, the European Union, with an emphasis on the independence of the EU legal order and legal pluralism, has displayed a purposeful and moderate Particularism. Explaining the similarities and differences between the United States and the European Union, the current study rejects unjustified Particularism in international law and assesses the EU approach and function more moderate.


1. انگلیسی
A) Books
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