1 Assistant Prof., Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 MA. in Oil and Gas Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Today, because of the increasing development of global energy demand, energy resources such as oil and gas are more important than before. However, achieving these significant resources requires the use of the lands and properties of the people who live around these resources. These people have special conditions, which place them in a distinct group and should be considered. Religious and traditional affiliation, subsistence and other cases make these lands important for the indigenous people. In this article, how the industry should enter the lands of indigenous people and whether these people can play a part in choosing these projects are questions that we are seeking to answer. Obtaining consent and consultation with indigenous peoples are requirements that international law has determined for the protection of indigenous peoples rights, which may lead to State responsibility.


  1. 1.فارسی

    1. حبیب‌نژاد، احمد؛ اسمعیلی‌زاده، عالیه (1395). حقوق فرهنگی اقلیت‌های قومی در نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران و اسناد بین‌المللی حقوق بشر، تهران: مجد.
    2. شیروی، عبدالحسین (1393). حقوق نفت و گاز، تهران: میزان
    3. عباسی، بیژن (1395). حقوق بشر و آزادی‌های بنیادین (سه نسل حقوق بشر در اسلام، ایران و اسناد بین‌المللی و منطقه‌ای)، تهران: دادگستر.
    4. لاجوردی، سید عرفان (1393). حقوق شرکت‌های فراملی، تهران: میزان.


    A)    Books

    1. Anaya, S. J. (2012). Reparations for Indigenous Peoples: International and Comparative Perspectives, In Oxford University Press.
    2. Brabandere, Eric De, Gazzini, Tarcisio (2014).Foreign Investment in the Energy SectorBalancing Private and Public Interests,USA
    3. Lenzerini, Federico. Reparations for indigenous peoples: international and comparative perspectives. Oxford -University Press


    B) Articles

    1. Anaya, S. James. (2008). “Reparations for Neglect of Indigenous Land Rights at the Intersection of Domestic and International Law–The Maya Cases in the Supreme Court of BelizeReparations for Indigenous Peoples: International and Comparative Perspectives 567-603.
    2. Anderson, R. B., Dana, L. P., & Dana, T. E. (2006). “Indigenous land rights, entrepreneurship, and economic development in Canada:“Opting-in” to the global economy”, Journal of world business41(1), 45-55.
    3. Butzier, Stuart R., and Sarah M. Stevenson (2014). “Indigenous Peoples’ Rights to sacred sites and traditional cultural properties and the role of consultation and free, prior and informed consent” Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, 32.3 297-334.



    1. Indigenous Peoples and the oil and gas industry Context, issues and emerging good practice,IPIECA(2012).


    1. Lenzerini, Federico (2008). “The trail of broken dreams: The status of indigenous peoples in international law”," Reparations forIndigenous Peoples: International and comparative perspectives, 73-116.
    2. Lenzerini, F.(2008). “Conclusive Notes: Defining Best Practices and Strategies for Maximizing the Concrete Chances of Reparation for Injuries Suffered by Indigenous Peoples”, Reparations for Indigenous Peoples. International and Comparative Perspectives, 605-622.
    3. MacKay, F. (2004). “Indigenous peoples' rights to free, prior and informed consent and the World Bank's Extractive Industries Review”, Sustainable Dev. L. & Pol'y4, 43.
      1. Osherenko, G. (2000). “Indigenous rights in Russia: is title to land essential for cultural survival”, Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev.13, 695.
    4. Shelton,Dinah,(2008). “Reparations for Indigenous Peoples : The Present Value of Past Wrongs”, Reparations for indigenous peoples: international and comparative perspectives. Oxford -University Press,47-72
    5. Spence, David B. (2011). “Corporate social responsibility in the oil and gas industry: The importance of reputational risk”, Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 86
    6. Trócaire Business and Human Rights Advocacy Manual 2010
    7. Vrdoljak, Ana Filipa (2008). “Reparations for cultural loss.”
    8. Yakovleva, N. (2011). “Oil pipeline construction in Eastern Siberia: Implications for indigenous people”, Geoforum42(6), 708-719


     C) Websites