1 Prof., Faculty of Law, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran


Drilling of oil and gas wells located at sea (offshore) may result in transboundary pollution outside the country in which activities have been performed and damage to the territory of other countries. Compensating the damage to affected States requires the wrongful acts of States of operation which makes it difficult to compensate promptly and adequately. Therefore, it is required to address the regime for liability arising from lawful but hazardous activities under international law. Although offshore drilling activities are dangerous, they are lawful under international law and generally, they are being performed by private actors. Channeling international liability to the responsible private actor for hazardous activities which lead to transboundary pollution prevents from lack of compensation for victims of pollution. Hence, we examine the elements which have the key roles in the effective international civil liability regime related to pollution arising from offshore drilling activities.


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    A) Books

    1. Beyerlin, Ulrich (2007).“Different Types of Norms in International Environmental Law Policies, Principles and Rules” in Daniel Bodansky, Jutta Brunnée & Ellen Hey (eds),
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    1. Fitzmaurice, Malgosia (2007). “International Responsibility and Liability” in Daniel Bodansky, Jutta Brunnée & Ellen Hey, eds, The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law (Oxford: OUP 2007) 1011.


    1. Lyons Youna, (2015). “Transboundary pollution from offshore activities: a study of the Montara offshore oil spill” in S.Jayakumar et al (eds), Transboundary Pollution: Evolving Issues of International Law and Policy (London: Edward Edgar Publishing Limited).


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    1. Røsæg Erik, (2015). The Norweian Perspective With Regard to Liability Regimes Concerning Oil Rigs and Installation, in Soyer. Baris and Lettenborn, Andrew, Offshore Contracts and Liabilities, Informa Law fromRouledge, 1st ed.


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    1. Rares, S. (2011). “The need for an international Convention to deal with offshore hydrocarbon leaks”, A paper presented at the 2011 Biennial Mini Conference of the Maritime Law Association of Australia and New Zealand (NSW Branch), Lilianfels, Katoomba on 11 March 2011.


    1. Rochette Julien,( 2014) Wemaëre Matthieu, Chabason Lucien, Callet Sarah, Seeing beyond the horizon for deepwater oil and gas: strengthening the international regulation of offshore exploration and exploitation, IDDRI SciencesPo.


    1. Sachs Noah, (2008). “Beyond the Liability Wall: Strengthening Tort Remedies in International Environmental Law” 55 UCLA Law Review 837.


    1. Shaw Richard, (2012). “Regulation of offshore activity – Pollution liability and other aspects” Comite Maritime International, Beijing International Conference 2012.


    1. Smith Marissa, (2011). “The Deepwater Horizon Disaster: An Examination of the Spill’s Impact on the Gap in International Regulation of Oil Pollution from Fixed Platforms” 25 Emory Int’l L Rev 1477.