1 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Following the development of communicational technologies, countries gradually found out about the unexpected role of propaganda in manipulating people’s mind in global relations. So, throughout history countries and people started broadcasting propaganda to convince the world that their hostile and illegal acts are necessary or humanitarian. Propaganda was specifically used to incite to war and its examples could be seen in United States invasion of Iraq, the case of Ukraine and ISIS propaganda. The purpose of this article is to explain the dimensions and status of hostile propaganda for war in international law by an analytical-descriptive method. Unlike what people might think, it has been repeatedly mentioned and condemned in international law. The most important example is article 20(1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It is also indicated in the procedures of international tribunals and the resolutions of international organizations. In order to confront such increasing process, it is essential to study the approach of international law on propaganda for war.


  1. . فارسی

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    2. انگلیسی


    1. Jowett, Garth S. & O`Donnell, Victoria (2012). Propaganda and Persuasion, 5th edition, USA, SAGE publications.
    2. Kearney, Michael(2007). the Prohibition of Propaganda for War in International Law, UK, Oxford University Press.
    3. Mowlana, Hamid (1997). Global Information and World Communication: New Frontiers in International Relations, 2nd edition, USA, SAGE Publications.
    4. Nowak, Manfred (2005). UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR Commentary, Kehl: Germany, NP Engel.


    B)      Articles


    1. Bobrakov, Yuri (1966). “War Propaganda: a Crime against Humanity”, Law and contemporary problem, No.3,Vol.31, summer.
    2. Buyse, Antoine (2014). “Dangerous Expressions: The ECHR, Violence and Free Speech”, International Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol.63, pp.491-503.
    3. Collins, Richard B., (2010). “Propaganda for war and transparency”, Denver University Law Review, No.4, Vol.87.
    4. Larson, Arthur (1966).“The Present Status of Propaganda in International Law”, Law and Contemporary Problems, No.3, Vol.3.
    5. Sinsalu, Arnold (2008). “Propaganda, Information War and the Estonian-Russian Treaty Relations: some aspects of international law”, Juridica International, no.XV, July.
    6. Smith, Sarabeth A., (2010). “What`s old is new again: terrorism and the growing need to revisit the prohibition on Propaganda”, Syracuse Journal of International Law & Commerce, No.2, Vol.37, March.
    7. Van Dyke, Vernon (1940). “the Responsibility of States for International Propaganda”, American Journal of International Law, No.58, Vol.34.

    C)      Thesis


    1. Timmermann, Wibke Kristin, “Incitement, Instigation, Hate Speech and War Propaganda in International Law”, LL.M in International Humanitarian Law, CUDIH; Available at:


    D)      Documents


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    20. General Assembly, (24 October 1970). Friendly Relations Declaration, A/RES/2625 (XXV).
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    28. Human Rights Committee, (30 July 1993). General Comment 22 on Article 18, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.4.
    29. ICTR, (3 December 2003), Prosecutor v. Nahimana, Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza & Hassan Ngeze, Case No. ICTR 99-52-T, Judgment and Sentence.
      1. UNESCO, (12 October to 14 November 1970). Records of the General Conference, Resolution 4.301, 16th Session, Paris.
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      3. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, (10 December 1982), entered into force on 16 November 1994.


    E)      Sites

    1. Encyclopedia Britannica:

    Last Visit : 8/7/2015

    1. The Guardian:

    Last Visit: 8/7/2015