1 Ph.D. Student in Environmental Law, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, College of Aboureyhan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Optimum use of water resources is an obligation which expressly mentioned in municipal and international law. According to the rules and regulations of water allocation in agricultural sector of Iran, optimum and economic amount of water should be determined and illegal and overuse of water would lead to termination of usage license. According to this study, the method of determination of optimum water use in agricultural sector of Iran is not compatible with sustainable management of water resources. Despite some revision of law and regulation of water allocation for agricultural purpose have been made so far, wasteful use of water is being seen mainly due to non-volumetric delivery of water, lack of water user participation, lack of guarantees and little cooperation of related public organizations. Revising national water document due to the reduction in available water, volumetric delivery of water, shorten the time period for usage licenses and reviewing water tariffs are some suggestions for protection and sustainable use of water resources in agriculture sector of Iran.


  1. 1.فارسی

    الف) کتاب‌ها

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    A)  Books


    1. kwadwo Mensah (1999). Water Law, Water Rights and Water Supply (Africa), Cranfield university, Department for international development.
    2. Lucius Caflish (1992). regulation of the use of international watercourses. Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland.
    3. Uperti, trilochan (2006). international water courses law and its application in south Asia, published by managing director padam siwakoti.

    B) Articles

    10. Bennet M. and A. Gardner 2015, “regulating groundwater in a drying climate: lessons from south west Australia”, Journal of energy & natural resources law, Vol. 33, No 4,293-319.

    11. Patricia Jones 2001, “Operationalizing equitable and reasonable utilization: practice on the Colombia river globalization and water resources management: the changing value of water”, university of Dundee international specialty conference.

    12. Salmon, A. salmon 1994, international watercourses enhancing cooperation and managing conflicts, proceedings of World Bank seminar, World Bank technical paper No.414.


    C) Cases

    13. Convention on the Law of Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses, United Nations, (1997).

    14. Convention on the Protection and Use of transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, United Nations, Helsinki, (1992).

    15. Chile institutes proceedings against Bolivia with regard to dispute concerning the status and use of the waters of the Silala River system, ICJ, (2016).

    16. International law association, (2004), Helsinki convention on the protection and use of transboundary watercourses and international lakes.

    17. Sources of international water law, FAO legal office, development law service, 1998.

    D. Documents

    18. International law association, (2004), water resources law, Berlin conference.