1 Associate Prof., University of Judicial Science and Administrative Services, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Allameh Tabataba'i, Tehran, Iran


Since 1960s, the United Nations have commenced its efforts regarding international development. These efforts are composed of numerous declarations and resolutions of General Assembly of United Nations, creation of special institutions in the field of development including United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), four decades of development strategy (from 1960 to 2000) and also United Nations Millennium Declaration about Development (2000). It seems that exact consideration of this declaration which enumerates obstacles of development in detail and finds out the extent to which these goals are achieved within the specified time frame clearly can display amount of success of the United Nations in relation to development. Despite diligences of United Nations in relation to development, it couldn’t entirely attain to goals which have envisaged in this realm. Reasons which should be noted in this regard are: lack of institutionalized instrumentation, lack of binding international document and lack of scrutiny of charter of United Nations.


  1. . فارسی

    الف) کتاب‌ها

    1. بیگ‌زاده، ابراهیم (1394). حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، تهران: مجد، چ چهارم.

    ب) مقالات

    1. اسلامی، رضا؛ آجلی لاهیجی، مهشید (1396). «کاهش فقر؛ دستورالعملی برای توسعۀ اجتماعی در نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر»، مجلۀ پژوهش‌های حقوقی، سال شانزدهم، ش 31.
    2. امین منصور، جواد (1391). «از «ریو» تا «ریو+20»: «بررسی مذاکرات و نتایج کنفرانس توسعۀ پایدار ملل متحد»، فصلنامۀ سیاست خارجی، سال بیست‌وششم، ش 2.
    3. بذّار، وحید (1396). «تحلیل محتوای رأی دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در قضیۀ گابچیکوو ناگیماروس»، فصلنامۀ تعالی حقوق، سال نهم، ش 18
    4. بیژنی، مریم (1386). «اهداف توسعۀ هزارۀ سوم و چالش‌های پیش رو در ایران»، مجلۀ اطلاعات سیاسی اقتصادی، ش 239 و 240.
    5. بیگ‌زاده، ابراهیم (1395). «تقریرات درس حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی»، دورۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران.
    6. --------------- (1393). «تقریرات درس حقوق بین‌الملل کیفری»، دورۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران.
    7. پطروس غالی، پطروس (1381). «حقوق بین‌الملل در تکاپوی ارزش‌های خود: صلح، توسعه، دموکراسی»، ترجمۀ ابراهیم بیگ‌زاده، مجلۀ تحقیقات حقوقی، ش 35 و 36.
    8. پوراصغر سنگاچین، فرزاد (1394). «اهداف توسعۀ هزاره (MDG) و اهداف توسعۀ پایدار (SDG) (از MDG تا SDG)»، مجلۀ کار و جامعه، ش 86.
    9. سلیمی ترکمانی، حجت (1391)، «حقوق بین‌الملل توسعه پایدار: از آرمان تا واقعیت»، دوفصلنامه دانشنامه حقوق اقتصادی، سال نوزدهم، ش 2.
    10. نلسون، جین؛ پریسکات، دیو (1393). «آرمان‌های توسعۀ هزاره چه هستند؟»، ماهنامۀ اجتماعی، اقتصادی، علمی و فرهنگی کار و جامعه، ش 17.

    2. لاتین

    A) Books

    1. Aggarwal, Rimjhim M.(2016). International Development and Sustainability, chapter 22 of book of "Sustainability Science: An Introduction", by Harald Heinrichs, Pim Martens, Gerd Michelsen, and Arnim Wiek, Springer publication.
    2. Broude, Tomer. (2011). Development Disputes in International Trade, in Book of Law and Development Perspective on International Trade Law, edited by Yong-Shik Lee, Gary Horlick, Won-Mog Choi, and Tomer Broude, Cambridge University Press.
    3. Cordonier Segger, Marie-claire and Gehring, Markus w. (2005), Sustainable Development in World Trade Law, Kluwer Law International.
    4. De Waart, Paul J. I. M. (1998). International Law and Development, Vol. 1, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
    5. Feyter, Koen. (2001). World Development Law: Sharing Responsibility for Development, Intersentia nv, Antwerp, Groningen, Oxford.
    6. Frey, Marc and Kunkel, Sönke, and Unger, Corinna R. (2014). International Organizations, Global Development, and the Making of the Contemporary World, in International Organizations and Development 1945–1990, edited by Marc Frey and Sönke Kunkel and Corinna R. Unger, Palgrave Macmillan.
    7. Hildering, Antoinette (2006). International Law, Sustainable Development and Water Management, Eburon Uitgeverij B.V.
    8. Kaltenborn, Markus (2015). Social Rights and International Developmen-Global Legal Standards for the Post-2015 Development Agenda, Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London.
    9. Qerimi, Qerim. (2012). Developmen in International Law - A Policy-Oriented Inquiry, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
    10. Speich Chasse, Daniel. (2014). Technical Internationalism and Economic Development at the Founding Moment of the UN System, in International Organizations and Development 1945–1990, edited by Marc Frey and Sönke Kunkel and Corinna R. Unger, Palgrave Macmillan.

    B) Articles

    1. Akram, Susan. (2014). “Millennium Development Goals and the Protection of Displaced and Refugee Women and Girls”, Laws, Vol. 2, Issue 3.
    2. Bradlow, Daniel D. (2005). “Differing Conceptions of Development and the Content of International”, American University Washington College of Law, Vol. 21, No. 1.
    3. Glicksman, Robert. (2015). “An International Legal Framework for SE4All: Human Rights and Sustainable Development Law Imperatives”, Fordham International Law Journal, No. 37.
    4. Kumar Jha, Darshan and Tripathi, V.K. (2015). “Achieving Millennium Development Goals and India Vision 2020: Evidences from the Slums of Varanasi City”, Space & Culture, Vol. 2, No. 4.
    5. MacLeod, Stuart and Rane, Anders. (2014). “Seeking Improved Global Child Health: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goal 4”, Paediatr Drugs, Vol. 16, Issue 2.
    6. McArthur, John W. (2014). “Seven Million Lives Saved under-5 Mortality since the Launch of the Millennium Development Goals”, Global Economy and Development, Working Paper 78.
    7. Nnamuchi, Obiajulu and Anozie, Miriam and Ukwueze, Festus. (2015). “Maternal Health and Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 in Nigeria: Any Catalytic Role for Human Rights?”, Medicine and Law, Vol. 34.
    8. Ogundipe, Oluwatomisin M. and Olurinola, Oluranti I. and Ogundipe, Adeyemi A. (2015), “Public Health Measures and Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Accessing the impact of the Millennium Development Goal, Department of Economics and Development Studies”, College of Business and Social Sciences Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.
    9. Picker, Colin. (2011). “International Trade and Development Law: A Legal Cultural Critique”, The Law and Development Review, Vol. 4, No. 2.
    10. Smith, Abi C. and Mutangiri, Wonderful and Fox, Robert and Crofts, Joanna F. (2014), “Millennium Development Goal 4: reducing perinatal and neonatal mortality in low-resource settings”, The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, Vol. 16, Issue. 1.
    11. Souza JP, Tuncalp O, Vogel JP, Bohren M, Widmer M, Oladapo OT, Say L, Gülmezoglu AM, Temmerman M. (2014). “Obstetric Transition: The Pathway towards Ending Preventable Maternal Deaths”, BJOG, Vol. 121.
    12. Sun, Bo and Liang, Kun and Yi, Bin and Zhang, Li. (2015), “Child health in China in the Millennium Development Goal era”, Arch Dis Child, Vol. 100.
    13. Ugoani, John N.N. (2015). “Global Governance and Poverty Reduction through Millennium Development Goals: Some Regional Experiences”, Independent Journal OF Management & Production, Vol. 6, No. 4.
    14. Vogel, Joshua P. and Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia and Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman and Pileggi, Vicky Nogueira and Souza, João Paulo and Chou, Doris and Say, Lale. (2015). “Millennium Development Goal 5 and adolescents: looking back, moving forward”, Arch Dis Child, Vol. 100.