Development of new technologies and its growing trend in the last years of the twentieth century, led to the use of satellites in aircraft navigation. The implementation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems benefits all countries, including the Islamic Republic of Iran, but at the same time confronts them with political and legal challenges. The most important challenges for our country by implementing satellite-based navigation systems are the possibility of discrimination in providing the services and the possibility of violations of the sovereignty as a result of the exclusive control of the systems by the United States and Russia. Although, at first glance, the creation and development of a new satellite system which is controlled by an international, independent and civil organization seems to be a good solution, but considering the costs for implementation of a new system, this solution will not be welcomed. Therefore, the best way to solve the challenges arising from implementation of these systems is that ICAO, by establishing a proper legal arrangement regarding Navigation Satellite Systems, should control these systems with the participation of all countries and within the framework of an international organization.


  1. A) Books

    1. Abeyratne, Ruwantissa (2011).Space Security Law, Springer.
    2. Carbone, Sergio M. and Maria Elena De Maestri (2009). The Rationale for an International Convention on Third Party Liability for Satellite Navigation Signals, Uniform Law Review.
    3. G. von der Dunk, Frans (2015). Legal Aspects of Navigation: The Cases for Privacy and Liability: An Introduction for Non-lawyers, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Space and Telecommunications Law Program Faculty Publications.
    4. Huang, Jiefang (2009). Aviation Safety and ICAO, Kluwer Law International.
    5. Kantasuk, Battama (1997). General legal issues concerning GNSS, Institute of Air and Space Law, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University.
    6. Mohamed Mustaque, Ayumantagath (2010). Legal Aspects of Air Traffic Management Based on Satellite Navigation, Max Mulder.


    B)     Articles

    1. Altink-Pouw, Micke. C. (1993). “Perceived obstacles to GNSS institutional arrangements can be overcome in near future”, ICAO Journal, Vol. 48, No. 10.
    2. Dimitri, P. Nicolaïdès (1997). “GNSS; Legal and Institutional Issues, Institute of Air and Space Law”, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University.
    3. Harksen, S. (1995). “Is the World Ready for the Future Air Navigation System (FANS)?”, The Journal of ATC Systems, May and June.
    4. Huang, Jeifang (1996). “Sharing Benefits of the Global Navigation Satellite System within the Framework of ICAO”, Journal of International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3.
    5. Jakhu, R. S. (1981). “Developing Countries and the Fundamental Principles of International Space Law”, Project on Space Activities and Emerging International Law, No. 13.
    6. Moxon J. and Lopez R. (1994). “ICAO seeks firm GPS Guarantees”, The Journal of Flight International, 2-8 March.
    7. Milde, M. (1997). “Institutional and Legal Problems of Global Navigation Satellite Systems; Solutions in Search of a Problem”, Unpublished and informal notes for oral presentation Conference on Air and Space Law of Buenos Aires.
    8. Roberts J. and Showen C. (1995). “Joint Development of a next Generation GPS Landing System”, ATC Systems, Vol. 1, N0. 3.
    9. Warinsko N. (1995). “Du GPS au GNSS: le point sur la situation intetnationale”, Le Transpondeur, No. 13.

    10. Welde D. J. (1996). “Wide-Area and Local-Area DGPS lead way to era of satellite-based navigation”, ATC Systems, Vol. 2.


    c)      Documents

    d)                       A/CONF.101/BP/IGO/1, ICAO UNISPACE II Report on the Civil Aviation interest in the Use of Outer Space, 1981, Background paper.

    e)                        Assembly resolutions A32-19, Charter on the Rights and Obligations of States Relating to GNSS Services, 1998.

    f)Assembly resolutions A32-20, Development and elaboration of an appropriate long-term legal framework to govern the implementation of GNSS, 1998.

    g)                        Chicago Convention, Convention on international civil aviation, 7 December 1944, 15 U.N.T.S. 295, ICAO Doc. 7300/8.

    h)                       Council Minutes, 110th session, 14 October- 16 December 1983 ICAO Doc 9527-C /1078 C-Min 110/ and C-Min 110/9

    i) Doc. No. 9790, Increasing the effectiveness of ICAO, Assembly Resolutions in Force, Published by authority of the Secretary General, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008, Available: [on line],

    j) Doc. No. RTCA/TF, RTCA Inc., Global Navigation Satellite System, Final Report, 1 September 1992.

    k)                       ICAO Doc. 9630-LC189, Report of the 28th session of the ICAO Legal Committee.

    l) ICAO Doc. LC/35-WP/7-8, Report of the 35th session of the ICAO Legal Committee, 2013.

    m)                     ICAO Doc. LC/36-WP/3-1, Report of the 36th session of the ICAO Legal Committee, 2015.

    n)                       ICAO Doc. A33-WP/34, Progress Report on the Establishment of a Legal Framework with Regard to CNS/ATM systems including GNSS.

    • o)                       ICAO, Report of the 10th Air Navigation Conference, Montreal 5-20 September 1991 ICAO Doc. 9583, AN-CONF/10, 1991.

    p)                       ICAO Doc. A35-WP/125 LE/11, A Practical Way Forward on Legal and Institutional Aspects of Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/ Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) Systems.

    q)                       ICAO policy on GNSS, United Nations Coordination of Outer Space Activities, 2008, Available: [on line],

    r) Panel of LTEP, Legal and Technical Experts on the Establishment of a Legal Framework with Regard to GNSS, 2011, Available: [on line],

    s)Statement of Policy on CNS/ATM Systems Implementation and Operation, adopted by the Council on 9 March 1994 (Council Statement of 1994)

    t) U.S GPS Policy, PDD NSTC-6 U.S. Global Positioning System Policy with Statement of Vice President on March 29, 1996, Available: [on line],