1 Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


In the facing of the Syrian refugees crisis, the European Union has tried to coherence the member states approaches by setting a common asylum system and to transfer the responsibility burden to the third countries by the out-sourcing policy. The legal basis of determination of the international protection and its inclusion, is based on the international and European treaties. In this descriptive-analytical article we have analyzed these documents and legal principles deprived from them. We also have checked the judicial procedures of the European courts, in the guarantee of the rights originated from the international and regional commitments of the member states. What can be deducted of the induction in those resources is that the Europeans reaction to this crisis is different and in some cases conflicted, mainly because of the influence of the variables such as quantity, age, gender, and the national legislation and political system of the European countries. And fundamental reforms, both in decision-making and legislation system, is necessary, such as creating common legal system based on the European human rights norms, accelerating the process of analyzing the refugee requests and facilitating of its granting conditions, and refraining of the safe countries procedure despite in special situations.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
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ج) کنوانسیون‌ها و معاهدات بین‌المللی
10. اعلامیۀ جهانی حقوق بشر 1948 (مواد 1،2،3،13و14).
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2. انگلیسی
A) Books
15. Castello, Catherine, (2016). The human rights of migrants and refuges in European law, Oxford university press.
16. Hurwitz, Agnes, (2009). The collective responsibility of states to protect refugees, Oxford university press.
17. Goodwin-Gill, Guy. S, Jane Mc Adams, (2007). The Refugee in International Law, Oxford university press.
B) Articles
18. Adam, Simon, “Failure to protect: Syria and the UN Security Council”, Global Center for the responsibility to protect, 2015, available at
19. Bakowski, Pioter, Popcheva, Iva-Maria, Ivanof, Detlin, (2015). “EU migratory challenges possible responses to the refugee crisis”, European parliamentary research service, PE 568.
20. Castello, Catherine, (2012). “Courting Access to Asylum in Europe: Recent Supranational Jurisprudence Explored”, Human Rights Law Reviews, 12:2, Oxford University press.
21. Goodwin- Gill, Guy S. ,(2016).“The  Mediterranean papers: Athens, Naples and Istanbul, three paper addressing some of the legal practical issues raised by the movement of people across the Mediterranean in search of protection”, international journal of refugee law. No2, volume 28.
22. Lavresen, Lauren, (2012). “European Asylum law and the ECHR: An uneasy coexistence”, Gottingen Journal of international law4.
23. Phuong, Catherine, (2016). “Identifying States Responsibilities towards Refugee and Asylum Seekers”, University of Newcastle, UK.
24. Rolker, Turk, Andrew & Renita, Kablor, (2016).”A minor miracle: A new global compact on refugees”, center for international refugee law, university of New South Wales, Sydney.
C) Documents
25. New York declaration, UNHCR, Quick guide, last update June 2017. Task team on comprehensive Responses, UNHCR headquarters, Geneva.
26. The New York Declaration for refugees and migrants (Answers to Frequency asked question), UNHCR, 2016. (resolution 71/1).
27. The global compact on refugees explained: An ICVA Briefing paper (A global NGO network for principled and effective humanitarian action), June 2017.
28. Toward a global compact on refugees a roadmap UNHCR, may 2017.
29. Resolution 10/1 adopted by the General Assembly on 19 September 2016 New York Declaration for refugees and migrants (A/71/L.1) seventy-first session.
30. Global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration, second informal thematic session: Addressing drivers of migration, including adverse effects of Climate Change, Natures Disasters and Human made Crisis, through protection and assistance, sustainable development, poverty eradication, conflict prevention and resolution, may2017, ECOSOC chamber, UN. HQ.
31. European parliament, EU legal framework an asylum and irregular immigration, “on arrival “state of play, 2015, European parliamentary research service, PE 551.333.
32. Council Directive 2004/83/EC on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons or refugees of as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted L 304/12, official Journal of the European Union.
33. Legislation on emergency relocation and asylum seekers in the EU, European parliament, European parliamentary Research Service 2015, PE569.018.
34. Legislation on emergency relocation and asylum seekers in the EU, European parliament, European parliamentary Research Service 2015, PE569.018.
35. The influence of CJEU and ECtHR case law on asylum and immigration, European parliament, directorate General for internal policies, policy department C: Citizens, rights and constitutional affairs, 2012 (PE 462.438).
36. Council Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection.
37-Council directive 2005/85/EC of the European Union of 1 December 2005 on Minimum Standards on Procedures in Member States for Granting and Withdrawing Refugee Status.
38. Resolution2393, Security Council of the UN, 8141st meeting, 19december, 2017. Available at
D) Cases
39. C.490/16, (A.S/Republica Slovenija), CJEU, 2017.
40. C.638/16, (X and X/Etat Belge), CJEU, 2017.
41. C.374/87, (Orkem/European Commission), 1989, CJEU, ECR3283.
42. Application No.30240/96, (D/The United Kingdom), ECtHR, 1997.
43. Application No29217/12, (Tarakhel/Switzerland), ECtHR, 2012.
44. Application No.27725/10, (Samsam Mohammed Hussein and Others/The Netherlands and Italy), ECtHR, 2013.
E) Internet Resources
F) Thesis
50. Wollmer, Anna, (2014). International refugee law and the common European asylum system (conform inly or human rights violation), Master's thesis in public International law, Upsala University, Department of law.