1 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Generally,according to the statutes of international organizations,the precondition for membership in those organizations is that the applicant institution should be state.According to Article 4 of the United Nations Charter,only states can become members of the United Nations.When a State become a member of the United Nations,other states that have voted in favor of new member,acknowledge new member as a state and recognize it.After the adoption of resolution 19/67 by United Nations General Assembly, the status of Palestine was enhanced to non-member observer state. One of the major issues that has generally been raised since the issuance of the recent resolution was the collective recognition of Palestine by the UN General Assembly.In this sense,the states that voted in favor of resolution 19/67 have also somehow recognized the Palestinian state because because with their positive pole acknowledge the existence of the Palestinian state.In the author's opinion,the vote in favor of membership of a state in international organizations,especially the United Nations,implicitly recognize a new member.In the case of Palestine, although it has not become a member of the United Nations,the resolution acknowledge Palestine as a state that implicitly lead to recognized Palestinian as a state through the General Assembly of the United Nations.


  1. . فارسی

    الف) کتاب‌ها

    1. بیگ‌زاده، ابراهیم (1391). حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، تهران: مجد.
    2. -------------- (1382). جزوۀ درسی حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی 2، تهران: دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
    3. ضیائی بیگدلی، محمدرضا (1388)، حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، تهران: کتابخانۀ گنج دانش.


    1. قاضی، ابوالفضل (1370). حقوق اساسی و نهادهای سیاسی، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
    2. والاس، ربکا (1390). حقوق بین‌الملل، چ سوم، ترجمه و تحقیق دکتر سید قاسم زمانی، تهران: شهر دانش.

    ب) مقالات

    1. رنجبریان، امیرحسین؛ فرحزاد، مهسا (1394). «تحولات عناصر تشکیل دولت: از مؤثر بودن به مشروعیت؟»، فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 54، ش 2، ص 272-255.

    2. انگلیسی


    A)    Books

    1. Abr Frowein, Jochen(1987). Recognition of state, encyclopedia of public international law, vol 10,  PNHC.
    2. Crawford, James R (2006). The creation of states in International  law, USA Oxford University Press, second edition.
    3. Crawford, James R (1977). The criteria of statehood  in international  law, British Yearbook of International Law. 93-182.
    4. E. Villiger, Mark(2009). Commentary on the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , martinus nijhoff publisher.
    5. Lauterpact,Hersch(1948). Recognition in international law, Cambridge University press,  3rd edition.
    6. Palestine Liberation Organization Negotiations Affairs Department (2012), Palestine at the united nations a vote for peace and justice

    Available at:

    1. Raic, David (2002). Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination, Kluwer Law International, VOLUME 43.
    2. Suy, Eric (1978). the status of observers in international organizations, collected courses of the Hague academy of international law, RCADI,  tome 160.
    3. Victor Rodriguez Cedeno (2003). Sixth report on unilateral acts of States, UN Doc.

    B)    Articles

    1. A. Boyle, Francis (1990). “The Creation of the State of Palestine, EJIL, pp. 301 -306.
    2. Aufricht, Hans (1949). “Principles and practices of recognition by international organizations, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 43, No. 4, 679-704.
    3. Crawford, James R (1990). “The Creation of the State of Palestine:Too Much Too Soon?, EJIL, 307-313.
    4. Kelsen, Hans (1941). “recognition in international law”. Theorical observation, AJIL, Vol.35, No. 4 , 605-617
    5. Lauterpact, Hersch (1944). “Recognition of states in international law, The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 53, No. 3, 385-458.
    6. Martin, wahlisch (2012). “beyond a seat in a united nations: Palestine’s U.N. membership and international law, Harvard international law journal , vo 53,  226-268.
    7. Sir Joseph Hotung Programme for Law, Human Rights and Peace Building in the Middle East, School of Oriental and African Studies, Palestinian Statehoodand and collective recognition by the United Nations, University of London , 2011,  p. 30 available at :     

    1. Vyver, J. D. van der (1991). “Statehood in international law, Emory Int'l L. Rev., Vol. 5, 9-102.

    C)    Documens

    1. ICJ Report (2004). LegalConsequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory Advisory Opinion, separate opinion of judge Al-Khasawneh.
    2. Reports of international arbitral awards (1923). Great Britain v. Costa Rica, (TINOCO CASE), VOLUME I, 369-399.
    3. A/CN.4/534 (30 May 2003).
    4. (A/66/371, 2011)
    5.  (A/67/L.28, 2012)