1 Faculty of Law and Theology, University of Shahid Ashrafi Isfahani, Isafahan, Iran

2 MA. in International Law, University of Shahid Ashrafi Isfahani, Isfahan, Iran


Private life of athletes, artists and politicians is always fascinating and this charm, people curious spirit and neglect of some these celebrities, causes details of their family life are publish. Advocates of publishing such news, says that privacy of the celebrities is fewer than others, but the opponents believe that anyone has the exclusive privacy and the law must protect it. Judicial jurisprudence shows in most cases, this publishing has no social benefit. In contrary, sometimes their behavior give the right to pry in their life based on the freedom of expression. This Analytical – Descriptive study shows that the conflict between the freedom of expression and the right to privacy sometimes exists, that any legal system, somehow resolve the conflict.


1. فارسی
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2. انگلیسی
A)   Books
11. Callender Smith (2014). Celebrityprivacy and the development of the judicial concept of proportionality: How English law has balanced the rights to protection and interference, Queen Mary University of London Centre for Commercial Law Studies
12. Colvin, Madeleine (2002). Develping key privacy rights , Oxford Portland, Oregon, 507-522.
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14. Kilkelly, Ursula (2003). The right to respect for private and family life, Human rights handbooks, General of Human Rights Council of Europe.
15. Roagna, Ivana ( 2012). Protecting the right to respect for private and family life under the European Convention on Human Right, Council of Europe Human Rights Handbooks.
16. Wacks, Reymond (2010). Privacy a Very Short Introduction, Oxford.
17. Westin, Alan F. (1967). Privacy and Freedom, New York Atheneum.
B)   Articles
18. Alach, Patrick J. (2008). “Paparazzi and Privacy”, Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, vol.28, 205-238.
19. Carnegie,LP. (1998). “Privacy And The Press: The Impact Of Incorporating The European Convention On Human Rights In The United Kingdom”, Duke Journal Of Comparative & International Law, 311-342.
20. Choul Hong, Seong (2016). “Kids Sell: Celebrity Kids’ Right to Privacy”, Department of Journalism & Communication, Kyonggi University, Seoul , 1-13
21. Cohen-Almago, A. Raphael (2003). “Privacy - Two Episodes: Princess Diana’s Death and Les Edi tions Vice-Versa Inc. v. Aubry”, International Journal of Communications Law and Policy,issue 7,1-24.
22. Kenyon, Andrew T, Mline, Esther (2005). “Images Of Celebrity: PublicityPrivacy, Law”, Media & Arts Law Review Cambridge University Press,10(4),2-24.
23. Leslie, Larry Z. (2011). “Celebrity in the 21st Century”, contemporary World Issues, vol. 1.
24. Maralyan, Anna (2012). “Comparative Analysis of the Protection of Private Life of Public Officials and Public Figures Guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States and European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms”, Tufts University Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1-30.
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26. Price, Terry L. (2014). “Political Leadership and the Social Value of Privacy”, Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly, VOL. 32, NO. ¾,2-4.
27. Schaf, Jennifer  (2006). Shooting For The Stars: A Call For Federal Legialation To Protect Celebrities' Privacy Rights, Buffalo Intellectual Property Law World Journal, Vol 3:2, 164-195.
28. Smet, Stijn (2010). “Freedom of Expression and the Right to Reputation: Human Rights in Conflict”, American University International Law Review, Vol 26|Issue 1, 184-236.
29. Spearman Q.C, Richard (2006). “Is there a public interest in exposing details of the private lives of celebrities?”,Oxford University Law society,1-8.
30. Tomlinson QC, Hugh, Chambers, Matrix, Thomson, Mark (2003). “Confidence, Privacy and Damages: Hello! to Clarity”, New Law Journal,1-3.
31. Whittle, Stephen, Cooper, Glenda (2009). “Privacy, probity and public interest”, Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism of the University of Oxford.
C)   Documents
32. CCPR, (1988). General Comment No 16: Article 17 (Privacy).
33. ECHR,Mosley v. The United kingdom, (2011)
34. ECHR,Niemietz v Germany (1993)
35. ECHR,Von Hanover v. Germany( 2004)
36. European Convention For The Protection Of Human Rights And Fundamental Freedoms (1950)
37. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)
38. international principles of professional ethics in journalism (1983)
39. Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (1990)
40. Nordic conference of jurists on respect for privacy (1976).
41. Press Council Declaration of Principel on Privacy in the Uk (1976)
43. The Tehran Declaration (1943)