Tehran University


The doctrine of historic waters was introduced in the early twentieth century in international law of the sea. After more than a century of implementation aforesaid doctrine in between states, until today we has been witness its little development. In the Convention on the territorial sea and the contingous area and Convention on the law of the sea, there is no regulations concerning the historic waters.However,today in international law, a large number of stats, according to the doctrine of historic waters in the seas are seeking to expand their jurisdictional ambit, but the lack of clear and specific rules in this regard has led to differences at the international level, in this regard the fundamental question is that concept of historic waters  how is in international law of the sea?regarding to requirements of historic waters seem that historical waters those waters which coastal state applied effectively and consistently its sovereign rights over them and such rights consistently been associated with express or implied recognition of states.In the end, regarding to importance of historic waters in international law of the sea are deserving to be formed international conference with the aim the codification and development regulations governing to historic waters.


  1. 1. فارسی

    1. چرچیل، رابین؛ لو، آلن )1377). حقوق بین‌الملل دریاها، ترجمۀ بهمن آقایی، چ اول، تهران: انتشارات کتابخانۀ گنج دانش.

    2. ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا و دیگران (1393). آرا و نظریات مشورتی دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری، ج 4، چ اول، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.

    3. سون، لویی بی؛ نویز، جان ای؛ گوستافسون یوراس، کریستن؛ فرانکس، اریک (1390). حقوق بین‌الملل دریاها، ترجمۀ محمد حبیبی مجنده، چ اول، تهران: جنگل.


    2. انگلیسی

    A) Books4

    4. Blum, Y.Z., (1965). Historic Titles in International Law,The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

    5. Bouchez, L.J., (1964). The Regime of Bays in International Law, Leyden, Sythoff

    6. Chircop. Aldo, McDorman. Theodore, Rolston. Susan,(2008). The Future of Ocean Regime-Building: Essays in Tribute to Douglas M. Johnston, Leyden/Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

    7. Stoutenburg, Jenny (2015). Disappearing Island States in International Law, London and Boston, Brill Nijkoff

    8. Joshua H. Ho & Sam Bateman (2012). Maritime Challenges and Priorities in Asia, London and New York: Routledge

    9. Kaye, Stuart.,(1995). The South Australian Historic Bays: an Assessment, Adelaide Law Review 269.

    10. Kraska. James,(2011). Maritime Power and the Law of the Sea: Expeditionary Operations in World PoLitics, Oxford University Press.

    11. McDougal & Burke (1962). The Public Order of the Oceans, (New Haven, Yale UP).

    12. Roach, J.A & Smith, R.W,(1994). Excessive Maritime Clames (Chapter III Historic Water), Vol 66, International law Studies.

    13. Shalowitz, A.L., (1962). Shore and Sea Boundaries, vol. 1 US Dept. of Commerce

    14. Symmons, Clive R., (2008). Historic Waters in the Law of The Sea, Leiden/Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

    15. Valencia. Mark John, Van Dyke . Jon M.,Ludwig. Noel A,(1997). Sharing the Resources of the Sourth China Sea, The Hague/ Boston/ London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

    16. Wallace, R. (2005). International Law, London: Sweet & Maxwell.

    B) Articles

    17. Francioni, F., (1984). "The Status of the Gulf of Sirte in International Law", Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce. No. 11, at pp. 313-322.

    18. Goldie, L.F.E., (1984). "Historic Bays in International Law – An Impressionistic Overview" , Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, No. 11, at pp. 221- 266.

    19. Pharand, D.,(1971). "Historic Waters in International Law with special reference to the Arctic", University of Toronto Law Journal, No. 21, at pp. 7-9.

    20. Ronzitti, N., (1984). "Is the Gulf of Taranto an Historic Bay?" Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, No. 11, at p. 281.

    21. Westerman. Gayl S, (1984). "The Juridical Status of the Gulf of Taranto: A Brief Reply", Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, No. 11, at p. 304.


    C) Cases

    22. Fisheries Case (United Kingdom/ Norway) [1951] ICJ Reports

    23. Alaska v. US, No. 128 Original (2004): Report of the Special Master on Six Motions for Partial Summary Judgment and One Motion for Confirmation of a Disclaimer of Title.

    24. Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf case [1982] ICJ Reports, 18; Counter-Memorial of the Libyan Arab Jamahiria, Pleadings, vol. 2.

    25. Eritrea v Yemen (1998) Award of the Arbitral Tribunal in the First Stage – Territorial Sovereignty and Scope of the Dispute [Eritrea/Yemen – Phase I]

    26. fisheries case (United Kingdom v. Norway), Reply of the UK, 28/11/50

    27. Land, Island and Frontier case (the El Salvador/Honduras case) [1992] ICJ Reports. 351;

    28. Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions Between Qatar and Bahrain )2001( ICJ Reports,40

    29. North Atlantic Coast Fisheries Case (Great Britain, United States)]1910 [ The Hague Arbitration Cases, vol. XI.

    30. State of Louisiana v. State of Mssissippi, (1906).

    31. The South China Sea Arbitration (Philippines/ China) ]2016[, Permanent Court of Arbitration

    32. Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf case [1982] ICJ Reports, 18;

    33. Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf case [1982] ICJ Reports, 18;Tunisia/Libya, Reply of Libya, Pleadings, vol.4

    34. Alaska v. United States,(2004)US Reply Brief to Alaska’s Exceptions:


    D) Documents

    1. 35.  Juridical Regime of Historic Waters, Including Historic Bays (a study prepared by UN Secretariat): (1962);UN Doc. A/CN. 4/143

    36. Limits in the Seas No.99 Straight Baselines: Vietnam, United States Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research, December 12, (1983).

    37. Memorandum by the Secretariat of the UN, “Historic Bays” (Preparatory Document No. 1),( 1957), UN Doc. A/CONF.13/1.