1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Law, University of Payame Noor, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran

2 MA. Student in International Law, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran


Environmental law in the EU is one of the most comprehensive and concrete environmental laws in the world. Legislative system on environmental issues in the EU incorporate a series of principles, regulations and directives which not only must be observed by the EU’s institutions, legal and natural persons but also have to be taken into account in all policies of the EU. So the liability law of breach of these laws and principles have been arranged strictly. In this contribution I intend to, establish a Persian literature on the topic and also, in an analytic- descriptive manner, I will study on the dominated principles on the liability of persons and states in preservation of environment in the EU. To do so, first, I skim through the liability of the EU essential principles, after that I study the content and context in the 2004 directive and in the last part I will analyze method of implementation and success of this directive in fulfilling its objectives.


1. فارسی
1. باقری، فرهاد؛  تلخابی، متین (1396). معاهدات اتحادیۀ اروپایی به‌همراه توضیح مختصر، خرسندی.
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
2. Bergkamp, Lucas (2015). the EU environmental liability: a commentary, oxford university press.
3. Born, Charles (2014). the habitats directive in the EU environmental context, Routledge.
4. Crawford, James; Pellet, Alain (2009). International Responsibility of States, Cambridge university press.
5. Davies, peter (2017). European Union environmental law: an introduction to key selected issues, Taylor and Francis publisher.
6. Ebbesson, Jonas (2002). Access to justice in environmental matters in the EU, Wolter Kluwer.
7. Fisher, Elizabeth (2016). Environmental Law, text and materials, oxford university press.
8. Fitzmaurice, Malgosia (2010). Research handbook on international environmental law, Edwar Elgar publisher.
9. Gouritin, Armelle (2016). EU environmental law, international environmental law and human rights law, brill.
10. Hoffman, Herwig (2006). EU administrative governance, Edwar Elgar publisher.
11. Kingston, Suzanne (2017). European environmental law, Cambridge university press.
12. Macroy, Richard (2004). Principle of the EU environmental law, ISBSI publisher.
13. Patterson, Denis (2016). A companion to European union law and international law, Wiley publisher.
14. Robinson, martin (2015). Enforcement of European union environmental law, legal issues and challenges, Routledge.
15. Sadeleer, Nicolas (2002). Environmental principles: from political slogans to legal rules, oxford university press.
16. Tomuschat, Christian (2006). The fundamental rules of the international legal order, brill.
17. Wolf, Susan, Stanley nail (2015). wolf and Stanley on environmental law, Routledge.
B) Case law
18. Case c- 378/08
19. Case c- 330/08
20. Case c- 417/08
21. Case c- 422/08
22. Case c- 199/07
C) Instruments
23. EC/ 2004/ 35
24. EC/ 2006/ 1907
25. Manual on human rights and environment, council of Europe, 2013,
26. Treaty on the European union
27. Treaty on the functioning of the European Union