1 Associate Prof., Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Law, University of Shahid Beheshti, and Faculty member of Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


 International law has developed via conclusion of specialist agreements in diverse fields like international environmental law and international law of trade. However, this development has been accompanied by the worries about fragmentation of international law since in cross-sectoral trade-environment dispute settlement, due to divergent goals of these two regimes, the dispute settlement bodies may be biased and settle the dispute to their own benefit. The present article is to, via the examination of environment-trade disputes, introduce the impact of different application of environmental precautionary principle in international law regime, as a challenge to the unity of international law.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. فلسفی، هدایت‌الله (1396). سیر عقل در منظومۀ حقوق بین‌الملل، چ اول، تهران: فرهنگ نشر نو.
2. ------------ (1390). صلح جاویدان و حکومت قانون، چ اول، تهران: فرهنگ نشر نو.
3. شیلتون، دینا؛ کیس، الکساندر (2005). کتابچۀ قضایی حقوق محیط زیست، ترجمۀ محسن عبدالهی، تهران: خرسندی.
ب) مقالات
4.رمضانی قوام‌آبادی، محمدحسین (1392). «بررسی تطبیقی اجرای اصل احتیاط زیست‌محیطی در پرتو آراء و تصمیمات مراجع بین‌المللی»، فصلنامۀ پژوهش حقوق عمومی، ش 40.
5. زمانی، سید قاسم (1380). «توسعۀ مسئولیت بین‌المللی در پرتو حقوق بین‌الملل محیط زیست»، پژوهش‌های حقوقی، ش1.
6. کدخدایی، عباسعلی؛ عابدینی، عبدالله (1391). «اوصاف خودبسندگی نظام سازمان جهانی تجارت در نظام حقوقی بین‌المللی»، مجلۀ حقوقی بین‌المللی، ش 46.
7. نیکبخت، حمیدرضا (1382). «نظام حقوقی سازمان تجارت جهانی WTO»، مجلۀ تحقیقات حقوقی، ش 37.
ج) پایان‌نامه
8. شهبازی، آرامش (1388). وحدت نظام حقوق بین‌الملل، رسالۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی. 
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
9. Birnie, Patricia, Boyle, Alan and Redgwell, Catherine (2009). International Law & the Environment, New York: Oxford University Press, 3rd edition.
10.  Jackson, John (2000). The Jurisprudence of GATT and the WTO, Cambridge University Press.
11. KENNEDY, PAUL (2006). THE PARLIAMENT OF MAN: the past, present, and future of the United Nations, Random House.
12. Mann, H. & Porter, S. (2003). The State of Trade and Environment Law 2003, Implications for Doha and Beyond IISD&CIEL.
13. Shaw, S. & Schwartz, R. Trading Precautionary Principle and the WTO, United Nations University.
14.  Stephens, Tim (2009). International Courts and Environmental Protection, Cambridge University Press.
B) Articls
15. Benvenisti, Eyal & Down, GeorgeW. (2007). “The Empire’s New Clothes: Political Economy and the Fragmentation of International Law”, Stanford Law Review at 60 STAN. L. REV. 595.
16. Cheyne, Ilona (2007). “Gateways to the Precautionary Principle in WTO Law”, Journal of Environmental Law, Vol.19, No 2, 155-172.
17. Craven, Matthew (2005). “Unity, Diversity and the Fragmentation of International Law”. 14 Finnish Yearbook of International Law 20.
18. Miller, Nathan (2002). “An International Jurisprudence? The Operation of Precedent across International Tribunals”, 15(3) Leiden Journal of International Law.
19. Prost, Mario and Kingsley Clark, Paul (2006). ”Unity, Diversity and the Fragmentation of International Law: How Much Does the Multiplication of International Organizations Really Matter?” 5(2) Chinese Journal of International Law.
20. Sands, Philippe (1999). “Treaty, Custom and the Cross-fertilization of International Law”, 1 Yale Human Rights & Development Law Journal.
21. Shiva, Vandana (2000). “Ecological Balance in an Era of Globalization, in Principled World Politics: The Challenge of Normative International Relations”, ed. Paul Wapner and Lester Edwin J. Ruiz. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
C) Documents
22.Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, opened for signature 23 May 1969, 1155 UNTS 331 (entered into force 27 January 1980).
23. Marrakesh Agreement, Annex 2 (Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes) (DSU)
24. Convention on Biological Diversity, opened for signature 5 June 1992, 1760 UNTS 79 (entered into force 29 December 1993).
25. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, opened for signature 9 May 1992, 1771 UNTS 107 (entered into force 21 March 1994).
26. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, opened for signature 22 May 2001, 2256 UNTS 119 (entered into force 17 May 2004).
27. Treaty on European Union, opened for signature 7 February 1992 [2009] OJ 115/13 (entered into force 1 November 1993).
28. United Nations Declaration on Environment and Development, UN Doc A/CONF.151/5/Rev.1 (1992).
29. WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, The Legal Texts: The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (1999) 1867 U.N.T.S. 493 (SPS Agreement), Article 1(2), Annex A(4)(1).
30. ILC, “Report of the Study Group on the fragmentation of international law: Difficulties arising from the diversification and expansion  of  international law”, AN/CN.4/L.702, 18th July 2006. Available on the United Nations website, Finalized by Martti Koskenniemi.
31. Appellate Body Report, United States – Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products (Shrimp- Turtle), WT/DS58/AB/R, adopted 6 November 1998, DSR 1998:VII, 2755.
32. Appellate Body Report, United States – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline (US- Gasoline), WT/DS2/AB/R, adopted 20 May 1996, DSR 1996:I, 3, p.22.
33. Appellate Body Report, Japan. Measures Affecting Agricultural Products, WTO Doc WT/DS76/AB/R, AB-1998-8 (22 February 1999).
34. Appellate Body Report, Japan. Measures Affecting the Importation of Apples, WTO Doc WT/DS245/AB/R, AB-2003-4 (26 November, 2003).
35. Appellate Body Report, United States – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline (US- Gasoline), WT/DS2/AB/R, adopted 20 May 1996, DSR 1996:I, 3, p.30.
36. Appellate Body Report, European Communities – Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos-Containing Products (EC-Asbestos), WT/DS135/AB/R, adopted 5 April 2001, DSR 2001:VII, 3243 168
37. Appellate Body Report, EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (EC-Hormones), WT/DS26/AB/R, WT/DS48/AB/R, adopted 13 February 1998, DSR 1998:I, 135
38. Appellate Body Report, Australia. Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon, WTO Doc WT/DS18/AB/R, AB-1998-5 (20 October 1998).
39. Panel Report, Australia. Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon, WTO Doc WT/DS18/R (12 June 1998)
40. Panel report, EC – Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products, WT/DS26/R, WT/DS/48/R, 18 August 1997
41. Panel Report, European Communities. Measures Affecting the Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products, WTO Doc WT/DS291/R, WT/DS292/R, WT/DS293/R (29 September 2006).
42. United States. Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, GATT Doc DS21/R (1991) (Report by the Panel not adopted); United States. Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, GATT Doc DS29/R (1994).