1 Prof., Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


With the rise of investment treaties, investor-state arbitration became the main solution to adjudicate the investment disputes and therefor diplomatic protection claims have declined in numbers. Most investment treaties also provide that each treaty party can bring a state- state arbitral claim against another treaty party concerning disputes about the interpretation or application of the treaty. Furthermore, home state of investor can bring a diplomatic protection claim for violations suffered by it's nationals against the host state. As there is an applicable investment treaty between the dispute's parties, this kind of diplomatic protection claims is subject to distinct rules and prerequisites, governed by the treaty rather than by customary international law. A peculiar focus is placed hereby on the necessity to exhaust local remedies before proceedings may be initiated and on mixed claims that entail espoused claims as well as claims for an own and direct violation of the state.


1. فارسی
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2. انگلیسی
6. Amerasinghe, Chittharanjan Felix (2004). Local Remedies in International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
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B) Articles
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C) Documents
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D) Cases
21. Ad Hoc Arbitration Tribunal (1935). S.S. I'm Alone, Canada v. United States of America.
22. Ad Hoc Arbitration Tribunal (2003). Peru v. Chile.
23. Ad Hoc Arbitration Tribunal (2005). Republic of Italy v. Republic of Cuba.
24. ICJ Reports (1949). Corfu Channel, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Albania.
25. ICJ Reports (1955). Nottebohm, Liechtenstein v. Guatemala.
26. ICJ Reports (1955). The Aerial Incident, Israel v. Bulgaria.
27. ICJ Reports (1959). Interhandel, Switzerland v. United States of America.
28. ICJ Reports (1970). Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company Limited, Belgium v. Spain.
29. ICJ Reports (1989). Elettronica Sicula S.p.A. (ELSI) United States of America v. Italy.
30. ICJ Reports ( 2001). LaGrand, Germany v. United States of America.
31. ICJ Reports ( 2002). Arrest Warrant, Democratic Republic of Congo v. Belgium.
32. ICJ Reports (2004). Avena and Other Mexican Nationals, Mexico v. United States of America.
33. ICSID Case (1990). Asian Agricultural Products Limited v. Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
34. ICSID Case (2005). Empresas Lucchetti, S.A. and Lucchetti Peru, S.A v. Republic of Peru.
35. North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Arbitration Tribunal (2008). Cross Border Trucking Services, Mexico v. United States of America.
36. PCA Case (2011).  Republic of Ecuador v. United States of America.
37. UNCITRAL, PCA Case (2010). Chevron Corporation (USA) and Texaco Petroleum Company (USA) v. The Republic of Ecuador.