1 Assistant Professor, International Law Department, Faculty of Law, University of Tehran, College of Farabi, Qom, Iran

2 Ph.D Student in Public International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Enemy alien is used to refer to those aliens that are nationals of a country that you are fighting with. Theory and practice rightly distinguish between expulsion of alien in peace and war. A war will make nationals of your opposite state to enemy aliens. The belligerent state may consider it convenient to expel all of the aliens present in its country, including permanent or temporal residents. However this act may seem hard and unfair to aliens, but this has been accepted that this act is justifiable. International humanitarian law studies different situations including deportation or transfer of citizens such as aliens which are related to an armed conflict. However, states use this right largely by the excuse of internal security and public order. But the power of expulsion of aliens should be considered a special one and be used in special situations.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. جعفری لنگرودی، محمدجعفر (1372). ترمینولوژی حقوق، چ ششم تهران: انتشارات گنج دانش.
2. زمانی، سید قاسم؛ ساعد، نادر (1392). حقوق بشردوستانه در مخاصمات مسلحانه، چ سوم، تهران: شهر دانش.
3. شریعت‌باقری، محمدجواد (1393). اسناد دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی، تهران: جنگل.
4. ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا (1392). حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه، چ اول، تهران: انتشارات گنج دانش.
5. کریانگ ساک‌گیتی چایساری (1393). حقوق کیفری بین‌المللی، ترجمۀ حسین آقایی جنت‌مکان، چ چهارم، تهران: جنگل.
6. مدنی، جلال‌الدین (1378). حقوق بین‌الملل خصوصی، تهران: پایدار.
7. نصیری، محمد (1381). حقوق بین‌الملل خصوصی، چ نهم، تهران: آگه.
ب) مقالات
8. امین‌زاده، الهام؛ سیاه‌رستمی، هاجر (1389). «ممنوعیت اخراج سکنۀ فلسطینی و ساخت شهرک‌های یهودی‌نشین از دیدگاه حقوق بین‌الملل»، فصلنامۀ حقوق، مجلۀ دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دورۀ 40، ش 2، تابستان، ص 48-35.
9. حاتمی، مهدی و دیگران (1394). «وضعیت حقوقی بیگانگان در ایران در پرتو انسانی شدن حقوق بین‌الملل»، مجلۀ حقوق خصوصی، دورۀ 12، ش 1، بهار و تابستان، ص 170-151.
10. قاسمی‌شوب، احمدعلی (1383). «نگاهی به جایگاه بیگانگان در حقوق بین‌الملل با تأکیدی بر اسناد بین‌المللی حقوق بشر»، مجلۀ حقوقی، نشریۀ دفتر خدمات حقوقی بین‌المللی جمهوری اسلامی ایران، ش 31، ص 169-119.
11. قاسمی، علی (1393). «مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت‌ها در قبال اخراج بیگانگان با تأکید بر رویۀ دیوان داوری دعاوی ایران-ایالات متحده»، فصلنامۀ دیدگاه‌های حقوق قضایی، ش 68، زمستان، 240-207.
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
12. Borchard, Edwin M. (1915). The Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad or the Law of International Claims, New York, The Banks Law Publishing Co.
13. Caccamo, Emma (2013). Foreignness at home: Enemy alien control during World War 2, Wesleyan University, The Honors College.
14. Cheng, Bin (1987). General Principles of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, Cambridge, Grotius Publications Limited.
15. Clapham, Andrew & Gaeta, Paola & Sassoli, Marco (2015). The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary, Oxford University Press, New York.
16. Doehring,,Karl, (1985). “Aliens, Expulsion and Deportation”, in 8 Encyclopedia of Public International Law.
17. Draper, Gerald (1968), The Red Cross Conventions, quoted in 10 Digest of International Law, Marjorie Whiteman ed.
18. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie (1995). Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
19. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie and Doswald-Beck, L. (2005). Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I – Rules, Cambridge, University Press.
20. Oppenheim, Lassa Francis Lawrence (1952). International Law: A Treatise (edited by H. Lauterpacht), vol. II - Disputes, War and Neutrality, 7th ed., London, Longmans.
21. Jennings, Robert and Watts, Arthur (1992). Oppenheim’s International Law, vol. I, Peace, 9th ed., Harlow, Longman.
22. Lord McNair & Arthur D. Watts, (1966). The Legal Effects of War, 4th ed., Cambridge.
23. Oda, Shigeru, (1968). Legal Status of Aliens, in Max Sørensen (dir.) Manual of Public International Law, New York, St. Martin’s Press.
24. Pictet, Jean S. (ed.) (1958). Commentary. IV Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross.
25. Sandoz, Yves, Swinarski, C. and Zimmermann, B. (eds.) (1987). Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
26. Sohn, Louis B and Buergenthal (1992). The Movement of Persons across Borders, Washington, D.C., American Society of International Law.
27. Tiburico, Carmen (2001). The human rights of aliens under international and comparative law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Netherlands.
28. Triffterer, Otto and Ambos, Kai (2016). The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, A Commentary, C.H.BECK. Hart. Nomos, Germany.
B) Articles
29. Garner, James W. (1918). “Treatment of enemy Aliens,” The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 12, No. 1.
30. Kidane, Won, (2013). “Procedural Due Process in the expulsion of aliens under international, United States, and European Union Law: A Comparative Analysis,”Emory International Law Review, Vol. 27, pp. 285-346.
31. Pistol, Rachel (2015). “Enemy Alien and Refugee: Conflicting Identities in Great Britain during the Second World War,” University of Sussex Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 16, pp. 37-52.
C) Cases and Documents
32. General Assembly, resolution 40/144 of 13 December 1985.
33. Lacoste v. Mexico (Mexican Commission), Award of 4 September 1875, in John Bassett Moore, History and Digest of the International Arbitrations to Which the United States Has Been a Party, vol. IV.
34. Legal Consequences of the Construction of the Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (2004), I.C.J. Reports, Advisory Opinion.
35. Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons (1996),I.C.J. Reports, Advisory Opinion.
36. Ludecke v. Watkins, No. 723, Argued May 3-4, 1948, Decided June 21, 1948, 335 U.S. 160.
37. Partial Award, Civilians Claims (2004), Eritrea’s Claims 15, 16, 23 & 27-32, Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, The Hague.
38. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Rome, 17 July 1998, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2187, No. 38544.
39. Statute of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, contained in Security Council resolution 827 (1993), 25 May 1993.