Assistant Professor, Department of Law, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran


Border conflicts between states along the water like the lands are various and controversial.
In most of these conflicts islands are present and differences opinion in the way of influence on delimitations would prevent the states to reach an agreement. Not reaching an agreement would provide a background to determine applicable laws on the subject and would lead the states to arbitral and judicial courts. The articles of the Law of the Sea Convention are too few in order to determine the rules which are regulate maritime zone delimitation between opposite or adjacent states. There are also no regulations in terms of the role of islands in this process.
Instead, international jurisprudence have tried to fill this gap. This article aims to find the given effect to the islands in international arbitral and judicial Judgments and awards, and discuss and analyze the side taken by these courts and tribunals. The methodology of this research is descriptive-analytical which was done with the help of library sources


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. چگینی، وحید (1390). فرهنگ تشریحی مهندسی سواحل و فیزیک دریا، تهران: مؤسسۀ ملی اقیانوس‌شناسی.
2. سالاری، اسماء (1391).  نظام حقوقی جزایر در حقوق بین‌الملل، تهران: خرسندی.
ب) مقالات
3. بیگ‌زاده، ابراهیم؛ حسینی‌نواز، سید علی (1392). «نظام حل‌وفصل اختلاف‌های حقوق دریاها؛ نقایص و چالش‌ها»، تحقیقات حقوقی، ویژه‌نامة شمارۀ 14.
4. صیرفی، ساسان (1397). «کاربرد خطوط مبدأ مستقیم در تحدید حدود دریایی؛ با نگاه ویژه به تحدید حدود دریایی بین ایران و کویت»، فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 48، ش  3، ص 505-483.
5. عسگری، سهراب (1386). «افراز مرز دریایی ایران و کویت»، فصلنامۀ پیک نور، سال پنجم، ش 2.
6. علویان، نجفی اسفاد (1398). « اصل تناسب در تحدید حدود مناطق دریایی از منظر رویه‌ی قضایی بین‌المللی»، فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 49، ش 1، 176-159.
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
7. Tanaka, Y., (2012). The international law of the sea, Cambridge University Press
8. Tanaka , Y., (2006). Predictability and Flexibility in the Law of Maritime Delimitation, Hart Publishing, Oxford
9. Karaman, I.V., (2012). Dispute resolution in the law of the sea, Martinus Nijhoff Publication, Leiden
10. Anderson, D., (2017). “Some Aspects of the Regime of Islands in the Law of the Sea” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol.32,pp.316-331
11. Antunes, N.M., Becker-weinberg, V., (2018). “Entitlement to Maritime Zones and Their Delimitation In the Doldrums of Uncertainty and Unpredictability” in Oude Elferink, A.G.,Henriksen, T., Busch, S. V. (eds.), Maritime Boundary Delimitation: The Case Law. Cambridge University Press
12. Beckman, R., Schofield, C., (2009). “Moving Beyond Disputes Over Island Sovereignty: ICJ Decision Sets Stage for Maritime Boundary Delimitation in the Singapore Strait, Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 40, 1–35
13. Christie, D. R.,(1983). “From the School of Ras Kaboudia to the Shores of Tripoli: the Tunisia Libya Continental Shelf Boundary Delimitation”, Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol. 13, No. 1
14. Evans, M., (2018). “Relevant Circumstances” in Oude Elferink, A.G.,Henriksen, T., Busch, S. V. (eds.), Maritime Boundary Delimitation: The Case Law. Cambridge University Press
15. Herman, L. L.,(1984). “The Court Giveth and the Court Taken Away: An Analysis of the Tunisia Libya Continental Shelf Case”,International and Comprative Law Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1984, pp. 830-833
16. Lathrop, C.G., (2018). “The Provisional Equidistance Line Charting a Course between Objectivity and Subjectivity?” in Oude Elferink, A.G.,Henriksen, T., Busch, S. V. (eds.), Maritime Boundary Delimitation: The Case Law. Cambridge University Press
17. Mc Rae, D., (2018). “The Applicable Law The Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, the LOSC, and Customary International Law”in Oude Elferink, A.G.,Henriksen, T., Busch, S. V. (eds.), Maritime Boundary Delimitation: The Case Law. Cambridge University Press
C) Hague Academy Collected Courses
18. Murphy, S.D.,(2017), International Law Related to Islands, Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, Vol. 386.
D) Judgements and Awards
19. ICJ Rep (1982), Case Concerning The continental Shelf between Tunisia- Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
20. ICJ Rep (1984), Case Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area between Canada and U.S.A,
21. ICJ Rep (2001), Case Concerning Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain
22. ICJ Rep (2007), Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Honduras)
23. ICJ Rep (2009), Maritime Delimitation in the Black sea, (Romania v. Ukraine)
24. ICJ Rep (2012), Case Concerning Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia
25. Court of Arbitration Award (1977),Case Concerning Delimitation of the Continental Shelf between the United Kingdom and France
26. Court of Arbitration Award (1981),The Dubai/Sharjah Boundary Arbitration
27. Court of Arbitration Award,)1985( ,Guinea/Guinea-Bissau maritime boundary 
28. Court of Arbitration Award (1992) The French-Canadian Arbitration around St. Pierre and Miquelon
29. ITLOS Rep (2012), Dispute concerning delimitation of the maritime boundary between Bangladesh and Myanmar in the Bay of Bengal (Bangladesh/Myanmar)
30. PCA Rep (1999), Case Concerning the Delimitation of Maritime Zone between Eritrea- Yemen