Document Type : Article


1 , Ph.D Student, Faculty of Human Sciences, Islamic Azad University Qom branch, Qom, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Human Sciences, Hazrat _E_ Masoumeh University, Qom, Iran


Since the cultural property of nations is an unrepeatable heritage of all humanity, the need to prohibit reprisals against these property is inevitable. The most important conventional and customary international documents in this regard are article 4 (4) of the 1954 Hague Convention, article 53 (3) of the First Protocol 1977, and Rule 147 of the Customary International Humanitarian Law (2005). Despite of these documents, the hostile parties still do reprisals  against the cultural property of the nations and destruct them continuously. An example of this claim is the reprisals by Iraq against Iran's cultural property during the War of Iran and Iraq, and these  actions in the ancient city of Dubrovnik during the Yugoslavia wars. The present study indicates the structural weakness of the existing rules and the need to focus on the guarantee of the implementation of these documents.


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