1 Faculty of Law, Islamic Azad University Najaf Abad Branch, Najaf Abad, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Faculty of Law, Islamic Azad University Najaf Abad Branch, Najaf Abad, Iran


Victims of international crimes almost are in a weak and fragile state. Protection of victims in the framework of international criminal tribunal is not strong protection and if this limited protection remains in the rules of the statue there will be an unbalance between the situation of victims and accused persons in proceedings. NGOs that in the last few years expanded in form of quality of tasks and number, have a considerable potential to balance this relation and protection of victims in proceedings. The main protection is legal consultation to victims. Legal consultations often achieve in forms of drafting applications and introducing solicitors for victims. Sometimes NGOs do their protection as "Amicus Curiae" and inform the court of events. Thus, they could help in establishing justice. NGOs in this area are almost popular and recognized organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, International Bar Association, etc. they used every means for reaching the objects of international criminal law, particularly justice. Moreover to legal aids, they contact persons in danger of victimization, try to increase their awareness and also contact States for persuading them to protect victims.


A) Books
1. Ambos, Kai (2013). Treaties on International Criminal Law: Vol 1: Foundations and General Part, London, Oxford University Press.
2. Barrat, Claudie (2014). Status of NGOs in International Humanitarian Law, Leiden, MartinusNijhoff Publishers.
3. Bottigliero, Ilara (2004). Redress for Victims of Crimes Under International Law, Leiden, Springer.
4. Brunovskis, Anette (2012). Balancing Protection and Prosecution in Anti-Trafficking Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Reflection Periods and Related Temporary Residence Permits for Victims of Traficking in the Nordic Countries, Belgium and Italy, Nordic Council of Ministers.
5. F.Dekker, Ige & G.Werner, Wouter (2004). Governance and International Legal Theory, Leiden, Springer.
6. Harees, Lukman. (2012). The Mirage of Dignity on the Highways of Human Progress, USA, Author House.
7. ICC-PIDS-FS-11-001/10_Eng, The Review Conference of Rome Statute, Kampala (Uganda) 31 May-11 June 2010, at: (21-9-2015)
8. K.lamont, Christopher (2010). International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance, Farnham, Ashgate.
9. NitbuNgane, Sylvia (2015). The Position of Witnesses before the International Criminal Court, Leiden, BRILL.
10. OSCE (2009). Preventing and Responding to Hate Crimes; A Resource Guide for NGOs in the OSCE Region, OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights
11. Soummy, I., (2005). L´accès des Organisations Non Gouvernementales aux Jurisdictions Internationales. Tese de doutorado. Limoges: Faculté de Droit et Sciences Economiques, Université de Limoges.
12. S.Brown, Bartram (2011). Research Handbook on International Criminal Law, Cheltanham, UK, Edward Elgar Publication.
13. Trevers, Tullio (2005) Civil Society, International courts and Compliance Body, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
14. Vedder, Anton (2007). Ngos Involvement in International Governance and Policy: Sources of Legitimacy, Leiden, Martin Nijhoff Publishing.
15. Booklet of Victims Before the ICC; a Guide for The Participation of Victims in the Proceedings of the Court. 8FF91A2C-5274-4DCB-9CCE-7273C5E9AB4/282477/160910VPRSBooklet English.pdf
16. FIDH (2009). Comments on the victims' Strategy, 14 October 2009
17. FIDH (2013). Enhancing Victims' Right Before the ICC, FIDH
B) Articles
18. B.Barret, Christopher (2005). "Food Aids at A Crossroads: The Shared Challenge NGOs Face", at:
19. Charnovitz, Steve (2005). "Accountability of Nongovernmental Organizations in Global Governance", at:
20. Meldrum, Eric (2009). “Time for a change?: The Traditional Human Rights NGO Fact Finding Methodology in Relation to National and International Prosecutions of Gross Human Rights Violations”, Submitted in partial fulfilment of the MA degree in Development and Emergency Practice, Oxford Brookes University, pp 1-53.
21. Sekowska, Katarzyana (2014). "The Role of Ngos in Individual Communication Procedures before the UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies", in Czech Yearbook of International Law - The Role of Governmental and Non-governmental Organizations in the 21st Century – 2014, Juris Publishing.
22. Wils. Frits (1995) "Scaling-up, Mainstreaming and Accountability: the Challenges for Ngos", in Ngos: Performance and Accountability Beyond the Magic Bullet, London, Earthscan.
23. IBA Monitoring Report, (2006). "International Criminal court", International Bar Association; Human Rights Institute Report.
24. IBA Outreach Report. (2008). "Beyond the Hague: Forging Linkages between the International Criminal Court and Key Jurisdictions", International Bar Association;Human Rights Institute Report.
C) Douguments
25. Case of CLR on behalf of Valentin Campeanu v. Romania, 47848/08, 17July 2014
26. ICC, Case of the Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre BembeGombo, Request for leave to submit Amicus Curiae observations pursuant to Rule 103 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence,13 July 2009
27. Manual on International Criminal Defence ADC-ICTY Developed Practices, (2011), UNICRI, ADC-ICTY, ODIHR OSCE
28. REDRESS, (2001), Seeking Reparation for Torture Survivors, REDRESS
29. Resolution ICC-ASP/4/Res.1, (2005), Code of Professional Conduct for counsel
30. USA Department of State, (2010), Trafficking in Persons Report, USA, DIANE Publishing.
D) Websites