Document Type : Article


Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran


Environmental impact assessment is an obligation belongs to international environmental law sphere in order to protect the environment which asks States to determine the likely impacts of a proposed activity or project on the environment of another country or countries. The International Court of Justice has introduced it as a requirement under general international law in Pulp Mills case and San Juan case pursuant to ITLOS’s explicit recognition of customary status of the EIA. Jurists have different opinions on the EIA, like; the way of becoming a customary rule and especially on the content of it. Based on the descriptive-analytical methodology with the help of library sources, the present article tried to deduce the process of consolidation, customary status and content of this obligation through international judgments/awards and documents and concluded that this customary obligation establishes when there is a risk of significant adverse transboundary impact. If there is such a risk, assessment is done. So, there are three stages; the preliminary assessment measuring the possibility of transboundary harm, conducting the assessment and the post-project assessment that provides valuable information for similar subsequent activities and the validity of assessments.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
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ب) مقالات
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2. انگلیسی
A) Books
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15. Tanaka, Y., (2017), “Case Note Costa Rica v. Nicaragua and Nicaragua v. Costa Rica: Some Reflections on the Obligation to Conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment”, Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, Vol. 26, No.1, 91-97.
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C) Documents
18. Case Concerning French Underground Nuclear Tests between New Zealand France, 1995 ICJ (Order of Sep.22)
19. Case Concerning Gabcikovo- Nagymaros Project between Hungary- Slovakia, 1997 ICJ (Judgment of Sep.25)
20. Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay between Argentina and Uruguay, ICJ, 2010, (Judgment of Apr.20)
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22. ICJ Rep 1995, Judge Weeramantary´ s Dissenting Opinion
23. ICJ Rep 2015, Separate opinion of judge Oda
24. Separate opinion of Judge Bhandari, 2015
25. Separate opinion of Judge Donoghue, 2015
26. Separate opinion of Judge Dugard, 2015
27. ITLOS Advisory Opinion of 1st February 2011
28. PCA Rep, 2016, Case Concerning the South China dispute between Philippine and China
29. World Charter of Nature
30. UN Conference on Environment and Development
32. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea