Document Type : Article


Ph.D. Student in International Law,, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran


Humanitarian laws applicable to the marine armed conflicts have not been faced with any development after 12 August 1949 through the conventional norms unlike land armed conflicts. However, some parts of the First Protocol, inter alia, the whole of its fourth part apply to the marine armed conflicts. Developments and progresses had been emerged in the context of modern technology and naval warfare have shown that the law of armed conflicts at sea need development and codification, because most of its instruments were created in the 20th century and were almost old. Through analyzing the customary norms, and some aspects of international soft law, specially The San Remo Manual, can be found that despite the absence of new conventional norms in this context, but the humanitarian law applicable on the armed conflicts at sea has had a sort of developments that most of them are about precautions in attacks, concept of the military objectives, military activities in different areas of the Sea, aircrafts and protection of marine environments.


1. فارسی
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2. انگلیسی
A) Books
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C)Main Documents
25. Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
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