Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in international law, Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Humanity has a common share in space exploration. The fundamental documents of space law support this claim. Although spatial technology has progressed greatly, space law is ambiguous in this regard. High cost and potential benefits of space exploration raise the question of whether spatial mighty countries share their discoveries with other countries? The important point is that developing countries are committed to allocating the interests of space exploration for economic development, while industrialized countries are less committed to economic development than developing countries. So these countries have more control over their own space programs, and their programs have more economic value. This article argues that powerful space-based nations have certain legal obligations about sharing the interests of space exploration that are ambiguous in some respects. Developing countries need to fair share of these interests as high as possible. The system of sharing interests only succeeds if helps the interests of the space nations; both developed and non-developed countries.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. حسینی، محمدرضا (1393)، نظام حقوقی فضای ماوراءجو (چالش‌ها و رهیافت‌ها)، تهران: میزان.
2. رضی‌پور، فریبا (1393)، حقوق بین‌الملل و بهره‌برداری نظامی از فضای ماورای جو، تهران: خرسندی.
3. محمودی، سید هادی (1393)، حقوق بین‌الملل فضایی، تهران: سمت
4. مومنی‌راد، احمد؛ سیدیان هاشمی، سروش (1395)، حقوق بین‌الملل فضا، تهران: خرسندی.
5. نژندی‌منش، هیبت‌الله؛ بابایی، یوسف؛ یعقوبی، اسماعیل (1395)، مجموعۀ اسناد حقوق بین‌الملل فضایی، تهران: خرسندی.
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
3. Milton, Smith (1988), The Commercial Exploitation of Mineral Resources in Outer Space, in SPACE LAW: Views OF THE FUTURE, Tanja L. Zwaan ed.,Venter, Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers.
4. Hosseini, Mohamadreza, (2014), "Evolution of legal system governing on outer space (challenges and solutions)", Tehran, Mizan Pub (In Persian).
5. Mahmoudi, Seyed Hadi, (2014), "international space law", Tehran, SAMT Pub (In Persian).
6. Momenirad, Ahmad & Seyedian Hashemi, Soroush, (2016), "international space law", Tehran, Khorsandi Pub (In Persian).
7. Najandimanesh, Heibatolah, Babayee, Yousef & Yaqubi, Esmail, (2016), "Collection of International Space Law Documents", Tehran, Khorsandi Pub (In Persian).
8. Razipour, Fariba, (2014), "International law and the military exploitation of outer space", Tehran, Khorsandi Pub (In Persian).
B) Articles
9. Benedek, Wolfgang (1986), "Progressive Development of the Principles and Norms of International Law Relating to the NIEO", The UNITAR Exercise, AUSTRIAN FOR LAW AND POLICY LAW Journal, Vol. 36.
10. Bueckling, Adrian (1979), "The Strategy of Semantics and the "Mankind Provisions" of the Space Treaty", Journal Space Law, Vol. 7
11. Danilenko, Gennady M., (1988), "The Concept of the "Common Heritage of Mankind" International Law," ANNALS AIR & SPACE Law, Vol. 13.
12. Danilenko, Gennady M., (1989), "Outer Space and the Multilateral Treaty-Making Process", High Technology Law Journal, Vol. 4.
13. Galloway, Eilene, (1980), "Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies", Annals Air & Space Law, Vol. 5.
14. Mateesco Matte, Nicolas, (1987), " The Common Heritage of Mankind and Outer Space: Toward a New International Order for Surviva ", Annals Air & Space Law, Vol. 12.
16. Rao, K. Narayana, (1981), "Common Heritage of Mankind and the Moon Treaty", INDIAN Journal International Law, Vol. 21
17. Sehgal, Neeru, (1986), The Concept of Common Heritage of Mankind under the Moon Treaty, 1979, INDIAN Journal International Law, Vol. 26.
18. Vereshchagin, Vladen S. & Danilenko, Gennady M., (1985), "Custom as a Source of International Law of Outer Space", Journal of Space Law, Vol. 13.
19. Vicas, Alex G., (1980), "Efficiency, Equity and the Optimum Utilization of Outer Space as a Common Resource", ANNALS AIR & SPACE Law, Vol. 5.
20. Wassenbergh, H. A., (1980), "Speculations of the Law Governing Space Resources", ANNALS AIR & SPACE Law, Vol. 5.
C) Documents
21. Bockstiegel, Karl-Heinz, (1981), Legal Implications of Commercial Space Activities, PROCEEDINGS OF THE TWENTY-FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
22. Boffey, Philip M, (1986), Commercial Launching by NASA Ordered Shifted to Private Sector, N.Y.Times
23. Christol, Carl, (1980), An International Regime, Including Appropriate Procedures, for the Moon: Article 11, Paragraph 5 of the 1979 Moon Treaty, PROCEEDINGS OF THE TWENTY-THIRD COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
24. Christol, Carl, (1976), International Space Law and the Less Developed Countries, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINETEENTH COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
25. G.A. Res. 1348 (XIII) (1958)
26. G.A. Res. 1472 (XIV) (1959)
27. G.A. Res. 1721 (XVI) (1961)
28. Goldie, L.F.E., (1976), Is There a General International Law of Original Ownership? The Possible Relevance of General Doctrines Governing the Possession of Deep Ocean-Bed Resources, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINETEENTH COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
29. Hampe, Wolfgang, (1988), The Legal Order for the Exploration and Use of Outer Space-Basic Principles, Scope of Application, Trends of Development, PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTY-FIRST COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
30. Marcoff, Marco G., (1974), Implementing the Contractual Obligation of Art. I, Para. I of the Outer Space Treaty 1967, PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTEENTH COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
31. Menter, Martin, (1980), Commercial Space Activities under the Moon Treaty, PROCEEDINGS OF THE TWENTY-THIRD COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
32. Ould Derwich, Mounira Hassani, (1988), Le droitde l'espace: un droita refaire?, 26 REVUE ALGIIRIENNE DES SCIENCES JURIDIQUES
33. Passell, Peter, (1991), a New Commodity to Be Traded. Government Permits for Pollution, New York Times Magazine, July 17
34. Qiwu, Zhu, (1989), Some Reflections on the Most Important Principle of Outer Space Law: To the Common Interests of All Mankind, PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTY-SECOND COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
35. Raclin, Grier C., (1987), International Cooperation in Commercial Activities in Outer Space: Is it Necessary, Desirable, or Feasible?, PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTIETH COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE
36. Rosenfield, Stanley B., (1981), "Use in Economic Development of Outer Space", PROCEEDINGS OF THE TWENTY-FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE.
37. U.N. Doc. A/AC.105/PV.203 (1979)
38. U.N. Doc. A/9556, G.A. Res. 3201, 6th Special Session (1974)
39. U.N. Doc. A/9556, G.A. Res. 3202, 6th Special Session (1974)
40. U.N. Doc. A/39/504/Add.1 (1984)
41. Williams, Silvia M., (1970), he Principle of Non-Appropriation Concerning Resources of the Moon and Celestial Bodies, PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH COLLOQUIUM ON THE LAW OF OUTER SPACE