Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. Student in Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Today, the jurisdiction of the constitutional judge does not limit to constitutional review of legislation; they have widespread competence in protecting the constitutional rights of individuals, so that they can be called judges of constitutional rights. The constitutional complaint that was foreseen for the first time in the German legal system, gives all persons the "right" to sue all forms of actions by public authorities (including the laws of the parliament) which violated their fundamental rights at constitutional tribunals. This paper examines the general capacities of the constitutional justice to support fundamental rights and enumerate the essential elements of the constitutional complaint and then describes the developments in France (after the 2008 constitutional amendments) and the United Kingdom (after the adoption of the human rights law in 1998), which seems to have been dramatically inspired by constitutional complaint by a comparative approach.


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