Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Prof., Department of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Tehran, College of Farabi, Qom, Iran

2 MA. in International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Tehran, College of Farabi, Qom, Iran


The International Criminal Courts for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, respectively, were established by the Security Council in 1993 and 1994, according to resolutions 827 and 955. Extensive costs, complex missions, and slowness of proceedings have led to a decision to create strategies to complete the Court's mission by 2010. The Council issued a resolution of 1966 to establish a new mechanism to speed up the completion of the trials and fight against the remaining fugitives. The Mechanism with a small, low cost and temporary structure; however, having two branches in two separate continents, has attempted to complete and continue the multiple functions of the Courts, while still having its own challenges and problems in structure and operation. In the present study, it has been tried to answer the question with a precise evaluation of the structure and functions of the Mechanism that the Mechanism is merely a substitute for the Courts, or is a new model created in criminal proceedings. By studying the founding documents of this institution, it can be seen that the new structural mechanism in the international criminal justice system. Other courts can use it to handle different situations.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. بیگدلی، محمدرضا؛ زمانی، سید قاسم؛ حبیبی مجنده، محمد؛ ساعد، نادر؛ عبداللهی، محسن؛ نژندی‌منش، هیبت‌الله؛ عبدی، ایوب؛ وکیل، امیرساعد؛ فاتح، علی؛ ضیاءالدینی، امیر(1387). آراء و نظرات مشورتی دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری، ج 1، تهران: دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
ب) مقالات
2. بیگ‌زاده، ابراهیم (1374). «سازمان ملل متحد محاکم کیفری بین‌المللی، تئوری و عمل»، مجلۀ تحقیقات حقوقی، ش 18، ص 146-39.
3. ذاکریان، مهدی؛  آقاعلیخانی، مهدی (1391). «بررسی دادگاه بین‌المللی کیفری یوگسلاوی سابق؛ فعالیت‌ها و دستاوردها»، فصلنامۀ سیاست خارجی، ش 1، ص 242-213.
4. رحیمی، حسن (1392). «درآمدی بر دادگاه‌های دوگانه در نظام کیفری بین‌الملل»، مطالعات بین‌المللی پلیس، ش 14، ص 123-99.
5. سلیمی ترکمانی، حجت (1397). «تروریسم و نظام عدالت کیفری: دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی یا دادگاه مختلط»، پژوهشنامۀ حقوق کیفری، ش 2، ص 209-183.
6. طباطبایی، سید احمد؛ میری، حمید (1384). «دادگاه کیفری بین‌المللی رواندا»، اندیشه‌های حقوقی، ش 9، ص 66-35.
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
1. Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza (2006). Opinions and Recommendations of International Court of Justice, Tehran: University of Allameh Tabatab’i Publication, Vol. 1. (In Persian).
2. Cryer, R. Friman, H. Robinson, D. & Wilmshurst, E, (2010). An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure, New York: Cambridge University Press.
3. Goldstone, R. J. & Smith, A. M, (2015). International Judicial Institutions: the Architecture of International Justice at Home and Abroad, New York: Routledge.
4. O'keefe, R. (2015). International Criminal Law, London: OUP Oxford.
5. Simma, B. Mosler, H. Paulus, A. & Chaitidou, E, (Eds.), (2002). The Charter of the United Nations: a Commentary, Vol. 1, London: Oxford University Press.
B) Articles
6. Baygzadeh, Ebrahim (1995) "United Nation International Criminal Tribunals: Theory and Practice" Journal of Law Research, Vol 18, pp. 39-146. (In Persian).
7. Cassese, A, (2012), "The Legitimacy of International Criminal Tribunals and the Current Prospects of International Criminal Justice", Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol 25, Issue 2, pp. 491-501.
8. Denis, C, (2011), "Critical Overview of the ‘Residual Functions’ of the Mechanism and its Date of Commencement (including Transitional Arrangements)", Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol 9, Issue 4, pp. 819–837.
9. Donlon, F, (2013), "The Transition of Responsibilities from the Special Court to the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone: Challenges and Lessons Learned for Other International Tribunals", Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol 11, Issue 4, pp. 857–874.
10. Galand, A. S, (2017), "Was the Residual Mechanism's Creation Falling Squarely within the Chapter VII Power of the Security Council?", QIL, Zoom-in 40, pp. 5-20.
11. Rahimi, Hassan (2013) "An Overview of Bilateral Courts in International Criminal System" International Police Studies, Vol 14, pp. 99-123. (In Persian).
12. Salimi Torkamani, Hojat (2018) "Terrorism and the System of Criminal Justice: International Criminal Justice or a Mixed Court" Journal of Criminal Law, Vol 2, pp. 183-209. (In Persian).
13. Soufi, J. & Maurice, S, (2015), "Structure, Functions and Initial Achievements of the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (MICT)", International Criminal Law Review, Vol 15, Issue3, pp. 544-564.
14. Tabatabai, Seyed Ahmad & Miri, Hamid (2005) "International Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda", Legal Thoughts, Vol 9, pp. 35-66. (In Persian).
15. Zakerian, Mahdi. & Aghaalikhani, Mahdi (2011) "the Assessment of International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia: Activities and Achievements" Journal of Foreign Policy, Vol 1, pp. 213-242. (In Persian).
C) Resolutions
16. S/RES/955, (8 November 1994).
17. S/RES/1503, (28 August 2003).
18. S/RES/1966, (22 December 2010).
D) Reports
18. International Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals: Fifth Annual Report of the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals, (1 August 2017), (A/72/261–S/2017/661).
19. Report of the Court on Complementarity: Completion of ICC Activities in a Situation Country, (15 October 2013), ICC Doc. ICC-ASP/12/32.
E) Decision
20.Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case IT-94- 1-AR72, Appeal on Jurisdiction (Oct. 2. 1995).