Document Type : Article


1 Associate Prof., Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Law, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran


Protecting installations containing dangerous forces in armed conflicts against reprisals is one of the challenges of recent decades. Since the destruction of the whole or a part of these installations could result in the release of dangerous forces and causing irreparable damage to civilians and civilian property, it seems necessary to establish customary and contracting international rules to protect them against reprisals. Article 56 (4) of the First Additional Protocol of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and rules 6.8 and 1006.9 of the Red Cross model manual on the law of armed conflicts for armed forces of 1999, without any conditions, prohibit reprisals against workshops and installations containing dangerous forces, but these actions in armed conflicts are still observed. Article 85(3)(c) of the First Additional Protocol of 1977 in certain circumstances condemns the attack on works and installations containing dangerous forces as a serious violation and considers it a war crime. In this article, attempts have been made to analyze and evaluate the attacks on works and installations containing dangerous forces in the framework of the reprisal system.


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