Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Prof., Department of International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran


In legal systems, in order to realize values such as the rule of law, the protection of human rights and freedoms and the realization of justice, various measures are considered to ensure the independence of the professions associated with these values, in particular, the judicial independence. Independence of legal profession is, of course, also considered to be of lesser importance than judicial independence. The present paper focuses on the definition of the realm of the independence of legal profession and with the knowledge of the lack of comprehensive researches in domestic literature in this regard, by presupposing legal profession as a public service.  Considering the legal profession as a public service and in accordance with its legal and managerial requirements, the concept, basis and scope of this independence can be considered in relation to the duties that the State has in providing public services. Of course, such an approach is not based on the reduction of the value and importance of the independence of legal profession, but it places that in a logical context based on the nature of the functioning of the State, especially in the legal system of our country.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
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ج) پایان‌نامه
15. زارع‌نژاد، علی (1390)، «مفهوم استقلال وکیل دادگستری در نظام حقوقی ایران»،  پایان‌نامة کارشناسی‌ارشد حقوق خصوصی، دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران.
د) اسناد
16. اصول اساسی مربوط به نقش وکلا (مصوب هشتمین کنگره سازمان ملل متحد در خصوص جلوگیری از جرم و رفتار با نقض‌کنندگان قانون، هاوانا، موبا، 27 آگوست تا 7 سپتامبر 1990)، براساس ترجمة ارائه‌شده در: کانون وکلا، 1386، ش 29 و 30.
17. قطعنامة شمارة 108- (2006) TA-P6 پارلمان اروپایی در خصوص مشاغل حقوقی و منفعت عمومی مرتبط با کارکرد و نظام‌های حقوقی. براساس ترجمة ارائه‌شده در: کانون وکلا، 1387، ش 31 و 32.
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
1. Ansari, Vali-allah (2011), Administrative Law, Tehran, Mizan Press (In Persian).
2. Boe, Soderston (2005), Globalization and the welfare state, Translated by Hormoz Homayounpour, Tehran, Tamin Ejtemaee Press (In Persian).
3. Emami, Mohammad; Ostovarsangari, Kourosh (2007), Administrative Law, Vol. 1, Tehran, Mizan Press (In Persian).
4. Ensafdardan, Mohammadreza (2007), Comparative study of the professional duties of lawyer, including the rules and regulations of advocacy, Tehran, Jungle Press (In Persian).
5. Hiwood, Andrew (2014), Introduction to Political Theory, Translated by Abdorrahman Alem, Tehran, Qomes Press (In Persian).
6. Michael, ich-lesnaf (2006), Twentieth Century Political Philosophers, Translated by Khashayar Deyhimi, Tehran, Mahi Press (In Persian).
7. Mohseni, Hasan (2013), Advocacy and the Bar Association in legal systems, Tehran, Mizan Press (In Persian).
8. Mousazadeh, Reza (2010), Administrative Law (1-2-), Tehran, Mizan Press (In Persian).
9. Ozer, Atila (2007), State in the History of Western Thought, Translated by Abbas Baqeri, Tehran, Farzan Press (In Persian).
10. Tabatabaee Motameni, Manouchehr (2006), Administrative Law, Tehran, Samt Press (In Persian).
B) Articles
11. Fouladian, Majid, Fatemi Amin, Zeinab (2009), “The Philosophical Origin of the Popper Welfare State in Contradiction with the Theories of Classical Proponents and Contemporary Opponents”, Social Welfare Quarterly, Vol.32, Pp.9-36 (In Persian).
12. Gordon, R. W. (1988), “the Independence of the Lawyers”, Boston University Law Review, Vol. 68:1.
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C) Documents
17. International Principles on the Independence and Accountability of Judges, Lawyers and Prosecutors, Practitioners (2007), Guide No.1, International Commission of Jurists.
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D) Thesis
19. Zarenejad, Ali (2011), “The concept of the independence of a lawyer in the Iranian legal system”, Master Thesis in Private Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran (In Persian).
E) Legal Documents
20. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers (Adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Moba, 27 August to 7 September 1990), based on a translation provided by the Bar Association, 2007, N.29 And 30 (In Persian).
21. Resolution 108- (2006) TA-P6 of the European Parliament concerning legal professions and the public interest in the functioning of the legal system. Based on the translation presented in: Bar Association, 2008, pp. 31 and 32, pp. 156-150 (In Persian).
F) Other Sources
22. Independence and Impartiality of Judges, Prosecutors and Lawyers, (2003), Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: A Manual on Human Rights for Judges, Prosecutors and Lawyers. Available at:
23. Independence of judges and lawyers (2009), UN General Assembly.
24. The independence of lawyers (2002), 28ème Colloquy on European Law. Available at: