Document Type : Article


Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


State right to exert diplomatic protection of its nationals, who have been harmed in other countries, is an incontestable subject matter, provided that they prove their nationality, exhaustion of local remedies, and commit internationally wrongful acts. However, the possibility of diplomatic protection of those with dual nationality in other subject country and resort to human rights of the protected individual is among issues that have been well-established in international practice. Detention, trial, and condemnation of Mrs. Nazanin Zaghari, an Iranian-British Subject, in Iran and UK diplomatic protection of her, and the probability of UK litigation in ICJ once again raised the question of dominant nationality of protected individual and resort to human rights as a basis for diplomatic protection. In this survey, conducted by a descriptive-analytical method, Britain justifications for diplomatic protection of Mrs. Zaghari on the basis of dominant nationality and human rights have been investigated and it has been criticized based on national regulations of Iran in the context of nationality and the principle of prohibition of abuse of rights and estoppel. Additionally, political negotiations with Britain to solve the dispute or Iran withdrawal from the protocol on compulsory admission of ICJ jurisdiction annexed to Vienna Convention on Consular Relations before filing a lawsuit before ICJ can be considered as possible solutions.


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