Document Type : Article


1 Associate Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Mofid, Qom, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Law, Faculty of Human Sciences, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran


For more than one decade, Treaty Shopping is at the center of the discussion of the International Investment Dispute Settlement. Generally, treaty shopping is a practice which international investors (natural and legal persons) through various methods, in particular, nationality planning, corporate structuring or restructuring, and by transfer of claims deliberately are seeking to use or take more benefits of the more favorable advantages of the BITs which the home country probably conclude with the host or third countries. The arbitration courts are faced with this question that they should dismiss the disputes containing treaty shopping or not? And is nationality planning or changing the corporate nationality by investors which occur aiming at utilization of the treaties advantages would be “Legitimate Nationality Changing” or “Treaty Abuse”? The aim of this article is to consider and analyze the notion of treaty shopping, methods which treaty shopping will be occurred and the quality of determining treaty shopping, in particular, in line with the foreign control notion based on the jurisprudence of the arbitration courts and investor-State arbitrations, in particular, ICSID and the solution for decreasing its possible effects.


1. فارسی
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2. انگلیسی
A) Books
1. Baumgatner Jorun, (2016), Treaty Shopping in International Investment Law, Oxford University Press, First Edition.
2. Marosi, Ali, (2012), Iran-Us. Claims Tribunal Reports, Volume II, Tehran, Presidency Institute Publication (In Persian).
3. Piran, Hossein, (2014), The Legal Issues of Foreign Investment, Second Edition, Ganjdanesh Publication, Tehran (In Persian).
4. Rudolf Dolzer & Christoph Schreuer,(2016), Principles of International Investment Law, Translated by Seyed Ghasem Zamani & Behazin Hasibi, Third Edition,Tehran, The Shar-e- Danesh Institute of Law(Research & Study), (In Persian).
5. Seidl-Hohnvelden,Ignaz,(2017), International Economic Law, Translated & Researched by Seyed Ghasem Zamani, Eight Edition,Tehran, The Shar-e- Danesh Institute of Law(Research & Study), (In Persian)
B) Articles
6. Chaisse Julien,(2015), "The Treaty Shopping Practice: Corporate Structuring and Restructuring to Gain Access to Investment Treaties and Arbitration",Hasting Business Law Journal, Volum11, pp.225-306.Available at:
7. Ghomami Majid, Sedighi Reihaneh,(2018), "The Denial of Benefit in Investment Treaties", Private Law Study Magazine of Tehran University,Period 48,No.1,Spring,Pp:115-131(In Persian).
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C) Working Papers & Thesis
9. Gaukrodger,David,Gordon,Kathryn,(2012),"Investor-StateDispute Settlement: A Scoping Paper for the Investment Policy Comminity", (OECD Working Paper on International Investment), Paris :OECD Publishing, Available at:
10. Lee,Eunjung,(2015),"Treaty Shopping in International Investment Arbitration: How Often it Ocuured and how it been perceived by Tribunals", Department of International Development (LSE),London School of Economics & Political Sciences,ISSN: 1470-2320 No15-167,.
11. Puukka Johanna,(2018),"Treaty Shopping in International Investment Law", Master's Thesis, University of Helsinki, Faculty of Law.
12. VanOs, R, Knottnerus,R,(2011),"Dutch Bilateral Investment Treaties:A Gate way to Treaty Shopping for Investment Protection by Multinational Corporations", Amsterdam: SOMO,Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen/ Center for Research on Multinational Corporations.
D) Cases
13. ADC Affiliate Limited and ADC & ADMC Management Limited v. The Republic of Hungary, ICSID Case No.ARB/03/16,Award of the Tribunal, October 2, 2006.
14. Autopista Concesionada de Venezuel,(Aucoven)v. Bolivarian Republicof Venezuela, ICSID Case No. ARB/00/5, Decision on Jurisdiction, 27 September, 2001.
15. Burimi and Eagle Games SH.A, v. Republic of Albania, ICSID Case No.ARB/11/18, May 2013.
16. Caratube International Oil Company LLP v. The Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/08/12, June 5, 2012.
17. Champion Trade Company, Ameritrade International Inc v. Arab Republic of Egypt, ICSID Case No ARB/02/9, Decision on Jurisdiction, 21 October 2003.
18. Eudoro Armando Olguin v. Republic of Paraguay, ICSID Case No ARB/98/5, Award, 26 July 2001.
19. Ioan Micula, Viorel Micula, SC Eyuropean Food SA,SC Sttarmill SRL and SC Mulitipack SRL v.Republic of Romania,ICSID Case No ARB/05/20 ,Decision on Jurisdiction and Admisibilitu,24 September 2008.
20. Mobile Corporation & Others v.Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, ICSIDCase No.ARB/07/27, 2010.
21. National Gas S.A.E. V. Arab Republic of Egypt, ICSID Case No.ARB/11/7,April,2014.
22. Phonix Action, Ltd.v.The Czech Republic, ICSID Case.No.ARB/06/5,Award, April 15, 2009.
23. Ronald S.Lauder V.The Czech Republic, UNCITRAL, Stockholm Award (Final Award), 13 September, 2001.
24. Societe Ouest Africaine des Betons Industriels (SOABI) v Senegal, ICSID Case NoArb/82/1, Decision on Jurisdiction,19 July 1984.
25. Tokios Tokeles v. Ukrain, Case No.ARB/02/18,Award of ICSID, April 29, 2004.
26. Yukos Universal Limited v.The Russian Federation, UNCITRAL, PCA Case No.AA227,Interim Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility,November 30,2009.