Document Type : Article


1 Associate Prof., Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Allameh Tabataba'i, Tehran, Iran

2 MA. in International Law, University of Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran


These days it has been recognized that NGOs have a significant role in international law, from decision-making to rule implementation. This article analyzed the influence and role of NGOs in fighting corruption. NGOs have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to make a valuable contribution to the fight against corruption. The phenomenon of corruption is a very big problem in many countries of the world, which can include any governmental and non-governmental sector. Corruption distorts resource allocation and State's performance. Consequently, States have to take measures to enable and strengthen NGOs participation. Today, the role of international NGOs such as International Transparency, Freedom House, World Economic Forum, and International Chamber of Commerce is significant as global non-governmental pioneers against corruption.


1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. بارگاوا، وینای؛ بولونگیتا، امیل ‌(1389)، چالش فساد در آسیا: بررسی مواردی از آن و ساختاری برای اقدام بر ضدفساد، ترجمة علیرضا دیهیم و حسین‌ عظیم‌بیک‌، تهران: زمان نو.
2. دوپویی، پی‌یر ماری؛ ویروچی، لوییزا (1392)، سازمان‌های غیردولتی در حقوق بین‌الملل، ترجمة مجید بخشی گنجه، تهران: شهر دانش.
3. فرج‌پور، مجید (1382)، «فقر، فساد و تبعیض» موانع توسعه در ایران، تهران: مؤسسة خدمات فرهنگی رسا.
4. مجموعه مقالات همایش کنوانسیون سازمان‌ ملل متحد برای مبارزه با فساد: دستاورد‌ها و چالش‌ها (1393)، تهران: میزان.
5. معدنچیان، ابراهیم (1382)، بررسی وضعیت و برنامه‌ریزی برای مبارزه با فساد اداری در کرۀ جنوبی و تانزانیا، تهران: پژوهشکدۀ امام خمینی(ره) و انقلاب اسلامی.
6. همدمی خطبه‌سرا، ابوالفضل (1387)، فساد مالی «علل، زمینه‌ها و راهبردهای مبارزه با آن، چ دوم، تهران: پژوهشکدة مطالعات راهبردی.
ب) مقالات
7. رمضانی قوام‌آبادی، محمدحسین (1394)، «مطالعۀ تطبیقی وضعیت حقوقی سازمان‌های مردم‌نهاد در ایران و فرانسه؛ از تأسیس تا فعالیت»، مطالعات حقوق تطبیقی، دورۀ 6، ش 2، صص 541-567.
8. عسکری، پوریا (1388)، «مناسبات سازمان ملل متحد و سازمان‌های غیردولتی در آیینۀ تغییر»، مجلة پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش، سال هشتم، ش15، صص 343-359.
9. ویمر، مارکوس (1389)، «مبارزه با فساد و نقش اتاق‌های بازرگانی و انجمن‌های صنفی»، ترجمة مهدی پورمیری، حسین، مجلة نامة اتاق بازرگانی، ش509، صص 16-19.
2. انگلیسی
A) Book
1. Bhargava, Vinay & Bolongaita, Emil (2004), Challenging Corruption in Asia: Case Studies and a Framework for Action, Directions in Development; Washington, DC: World Bank (In Persian).
2. Edwards, Michael (2000),NGO Rights and Responsibilities, a New Deal for Global Governance, the Foreign Policy Centre, UK.
3. Farajpour, Majid (2003), Poverty corruption and Discrimination, Tehran, Iran: Rasa Cultural Services Institute Publishing (In Persian).
4. Hamdami Khotbehsara, Abolfazl (2008), "Causes, contexts and strategies to combat corruption", Research Institute for Strategic Studies, Second Edition (In Persian).
5. Holloway Richard (2008), NGO Corruption Fighters’ Resource Book –How NGOs can use monitoring and advocacy to fight corruption, Impact Alliance (online). Available at: on=S_U&filename=11618854321Holloway_NGO_Corruption_Fighters%27_Resource_Book%5B1%5D.pdf. Last visited: 18 August 2019.
6. Madanchian, Ebrahim (2003), a Study of the Situation and Planning to Fight Corruption in South Korea and Tanzania, Tehran, Iran: Research Institute of Imam Khomeini and Islamic Revolution (In Persian).
7. Mendes, Errol P.(2014), Global Governance, Human Rights and International Law Combating the Tragic Flaw, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
8. Meron, Theodor (2006), the Humanization of International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague Academy of International Law Monographs.
9. NGOs in international law: efficiency in flexibility? (2008), edited by Pierre-Marie Dupuy, Luisa Vierucci, Cheltenham, U.K. ; Northampton, Mass : E. Elgar (In Persian).
10. Steffek Jens & Hahn, Kristina (2010), Evaluating Transnational NGOs Legitimacy, Accountability, Representation, Palgrave Macmillan UK.
11. The Proceedings of Seminar the United Nations Convention against Corruption: Achievements and Challenges, (2014), Tehran, Iran: Iranian Association for UN Studies (In Persian).
B) Thesis
12. Kimemia, Douglas (2013), organizational culture and corruption: a multiple case study of non-governmental organization in Kenya, A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Virginia Commonwealth University.
13. Rossi, Ingrid (2010), Legal Status of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Law, Catholic University of Leuven, Faculty of Law.
C) Article
14. Askari, Pouria (2009), “Developments in United Nations Relations Regarding Mutual Interactions with Non-Governmental Organizations”, Journal of Legal Research, Vol. 8, Issue 15, pp. 343-359 (In Persian).
15. Bernstorff, Jochen von (2007),“Non-State Actors in law-making and in the shaping of policy: On the legality and legitimacy of NGO participation in international law”. Study for the preparation of the Konrad-Adenauer-Foundation’s Conference on International Law 2007. Available at: Last visited: 18 August 2019.
16. Carr, Indira & Outhwaite Opi, (2011), “non-Governmental Organisations (NGOS) Fighting: Corruption: Theory and Practice”. Available at: Available at SSRN: Last visited: 18 August 2019.
17. Carter, Joseph L.(2013), “Aiding Afghanistan; How Corruption and Western Aid Hinder Afghanistan’s Development”, Foreign Policy Journal.
18. Charnovitz, Steve (2005), “Accountability of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance”, GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 145. Available at SSRN: Last visited: 18 August 2019.
19. Cleveland, Margot. Favo, Christopher M. Frecka Thomas J. Owens, Charles L, (2009), “Trends in the International Fight against Bribery and Corruption”, Journal of Business Ethics, 90, pp. 199–244.
20. Dattler, Raffaela (2016), “Not Without Us: Civil Society's Role in Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals”, IPPF European Network. Available at: Last visited: 18 August 2019.
21. Martens, Kerstin (2003), “Examining the (Non-) Status of NGOs in International Law”, Indiana Journal of Global LegalStudies, Vol. 10, Issue. 2 Art, 1.
22. Ramazani Ghavamabadi, Mohammad Hossein (2016), “Comparative study of the legal status of NGOs in Iran and France: from the establishment to work”, Journal: Comparative Law Review, Vol. 6, No. 2; pp.(s) 541 - 567 (In Persian).
23. Rebasti Emanuele, Vierucci Luisa (2002), “A Legal Status for NGOs in Contemporary International Law?”. Available at: Last visited: 18 August 2019.
24. Smith, Daniel Jordan (2012), “AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria”, Health & Place, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp.475-480.
25. Szporluk, M., (2009), ‘A Framework for Understanding Accountability of International NGOs and Global Good Governance’, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 339–361.
26. Tanzi, Vito, (1998), “Corruption around the World: Causes, Consequences, Scope, and Cures”, IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp.1-39.
27. Thompson Theresa, Shah, Anwar (2005), “Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index: Whose Perceptions Are They Anyway?”, Discussion draft working paper. Available at: /PSGLP/Resources/ShahThompsonTransparencyinternationalCPI.pdf. Last visited: 18 August 2019.
28. Trivunovic, Marijana (2011), “Countering NGO corruption: Rethinking the conventional approaches”, Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) - U4 Issue, Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Available at: countering-ngo-corruption-rethinking-the-conventional-approaches.pdf. Last visited: 18 August 2019.
29. Weimer, Markus (2007), Anti-Corruption and the Role of Chambers of Commerce and Business Associations, Publisher: Chr. Michelsen Institute (In Persian).
30. Wouters Jan, Ryngaert Cedric (2012), Sofie Cloots, Ann, “The Fight Against Corruption in International Law”, Leuven Center for Global Governance Studies, Working Paper No. 94. Available at: Last visited: 18 August 2019.
D) Document & Resolution
31. ECOSOC, UN Doc. E/2014/INF/5, 3 December 2014.
32. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), ICC Rules on Combating Corruption, prepared by the ICC Commission on Corporate Responsibility and Anti-corruption, 2011.
33. Kosovo Assembly, “Declaration”, 3 April 2014.
34. The Charter of the United Nations, signed on 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, entered into force on 24 October 1945.
35. United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), adopted 31 October 2003, entered into force: 14 December 2005.
36. World Economic Forum, Partnering Against Corruption Initiative (PACI); Signatory Code of Conduct.
E) Report
37. Freedom House, Combating Impunity: Transitional Justice and Anti-Corruption: Conclusions from Practitioners’ Dialogues on Transitional Justice, 2014.
38. Human Rights Information and Documentation Systems (HURIDOCS), what is Monitoring, Vol. 1. By Manuel Guzman and Bert Verstappen, 2001.
39. Transparency International (TI), Civil Society Participation, Public Accountab-ility and the UN Convention against Corruption, 2015.
40. Transparency International (TI), Corruption Perceptions Index, 2020.
41. Transparency International (TI), Global Corruption Barometer, 2017.
42. Transparency International (TI), Global Corruption Barometer, 2013.
43. Transparency International (TI), UNCAC and the participation of NGOs in the fight against corruption, 2008.
44. Transparency International (TI), Whistleblower Protection in the EU: Analysis of and Recommendations on the Proposed EU Directive, 2018.