Document Type : Article


Assistant Professor, Department of Law, University of Zabol, Iran.


Article 33 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child is the point in which two different legal systems meet, namely Human Rights System and the Narcotics order. According to this article for which no country has made a reservation, States parties shall take all appropriate measures to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances. Each and every word of this statement is subject to various readings and interpretations: The question is to find specific instances from which the child should be protected and whether the governments are only obliged to take prevention actions or have to cover children already engaged with the issue. Furthermore, the conditions under which governments’ actions take place should be elaborated. Besides analyzing the aforementioned article, this study tries to clarify its reflection on our law especially Children and Adolescents Protection Code. The research is conducted based on the descriptive-analytical methodology with the help of the available library sources as well as considering the general principles of the CRC and its Committee’s statements and conclude children shall be protected of any prohibited substances in the relevant international treaties. States are obliged to take all appropriate measures in order to prevent, treat and rehabilitate children affected by drugs.


  1. 1. فارسی

     الف) کتاب‌ ها

    1. مصفا، نسرین، (1384)، کنوانسیون حقوق کودک و بهره‌وری از آن در حقوق داخلی ایران، نشر دانشگاه تهران، تهران
    2. نیازپور، امیرحسن، (1396)، حقوق کیفری کودکان و نوجوانان (فرآیند پاسخ‌دهی به بزه‌کاری کودکان و نوجوانان)، نشر میزان، تهران

    ب) مقالات

    1. بینازاده فاطمه، رئیسی، لیلا، (1399) «تحولات تقنینی و قضایی ناظر بر مبارزه با مواد مخدر در کشورهای اونگاس»، مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دوره 50، شماره 1، صص.  401-421
    2. رحیمی پور، ایمان؛ حبیب‌زاده، محمد جعفر؛ محقق داماد، مصطفی  فرجیها، محمد، (1395)، « سیاست کاهش آسیب در قبال مصرف مواد مخدر؛ مطالعه تطبیقی در نظام عدالت کیفری ایران، پرتغال و کانادا»، پژوهش‌های حقوق تطبیقی، دوره 20، شماره 3، صص.84-110
    3. قربانی، ابراهیم، (1395)، «تبیین وجوه اشتراک و افتراق کنوانسیون‌های 1961، 1971 و 1988 مواد مخدر با قوانین داخلی ج.ا.ایران»، مطالعات بین‌المللی پلیس، شماره 27، صص.51-80
    4. مرادی، خدیجه، (1394)، «تحلیل وضعیت قضایی کودکان از منظر حقوق ایران و کنوانسیون حقوق کودک و تأثیر آن بر نظم و امنیت جامعه»، فصلنامه علمی دانش انتظامی کرمانشاه، شماره 22، صص.83-100

    ج) قوانین و مقررات

    1. قانون آیین دادرسی کیفری، 1392
    2. قانون حمایت از اطفال و نوجوانان، 1399
    3. قانون مبارزه با مواد مخدر 1367 و اصلاحات بعدی
    4. قانون مجازات اسلامی، 1392
    5. آیین‌نامه ضوابط تأسیس، انحلال و مدیریت مراکز درمانی و بازتوانی سوء مصرف‌کنندگان مواد، 1381
    6. تصویب آیین‌نامه «تأسیس مراکز خدمات کاهش آسیب وابستگی به مواد، 1385


    2) English

    A. Books

    1. Dahlgren, S., Stere, R., (2012), The Protection of Children from Illicit Drugs – A Minimum Human Rights Standard A Child-Centered vs. a User-Centered Drug Policy, Fri orlag Pub, Sweden
    2. UNICEF, (2007), Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, third edition, United Nations Publications, Switzerland
    3. Veerman, P. E., Barrett, D.. (2012). A commentary on the United Nations convention on the rights of the child, Article 33: Protection from narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
    4. Westra, L.,(2014), Child Law: Children’s Rights and Collective Obligations, Springer

    B. Articles

    1. Barrett, D., (2017 A),”International child rights mechanisms and the death penalty for drug offences”, Human Rights Law Review, Vol.17, pp. 205-229
    2. Barrett, D., (2017 B),”The Child’s Right to Protection from Drugs”, Health Hum Rights, vol. 19(1), pp. 263–268
    3. Barrett, D.,(2019), “Canada, cannabis and the relationship between UN child rights and drug control treaties”, International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol. 71, pp. 29-35
    4. Cardoso, F.H., (2012), “Children and drug law reform”, International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.23, pp.1-2
    5. Gimenze Corte, C., (2010(, “The Forms of International Institutional Law: An Historical Analysis of the scheduling Decisions of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic substances taken by the United Nations’ Commission on Narcotics Drugs”, International Organizations Law Review, Vol.7, pp. 171–221
    6. Jenner, M.S., (2011), “International Drug Trafficking: A Global Problem with a Domestic  International Drug Trafficking: A Global Problem with a Domestic Solution”, Indiana University Maurer School of Law,Vol.18, issue 2.
    7. Mahgoub, Kh., (2012), “Article 33of the convention on the rights of the child: the journey from drafting history to the concluding observations of the committee on the rights of the child”, Human Rights and Drugs, Vol. 2. No.1, pp. 45-63
    8. Merkinaite et al., (2009), “Young People and Drugs: Next Generation of harm reduction,”, International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.21, pp. 112–114
    9. Noguchi, Y., (2002), ILO Convention No. 182 on the worst forms of child labour and the Convention on the Rights of the Child”, The International Journal of Children’s Rights, Vol. 10, pp.355–369
    10. Núñez Valadez. M.A., (2014), “Drug Use and the Right to Health: An Analysis of International Law and the Mexican Case”, Mexican law review ,Vol. 6, No.2, pp.201-224
    11. Tobin, J.W., Barrett, D., (2019), “Article 33: Protection from Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in John Tobin (ed), A Commentary to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, J, Oxford University Press

    C. Instruments


    1. Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971
    2. Convention on Rights of the Child
    3. General guidelines Regarding the form and content of periodic Reports to be submitted by States parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2005(CRC/C/58/Rev.1).
    4. ILO Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182)
    5. Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961
    6. Treaty-specific guidelines regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), of the Convention on the Rights of the Child,2010 ( CRC/C/58/Rev.2)
    7. Treaty-specific guidelines regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2015(CRC/C/58/Rev.3)
    8. United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988
    9. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control 2003
    10. WHO Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, 2012

    D. Websites

    1. Accessed: 2021/5/10
    2., Accessed:2021/7/5
    3., Accessed: 2021/7/5

    برگردان منابع فارسی به انگلیسی


    *Mosaffa, N., (2005), The convention on the rights of the child and its implementation in Iran's code, University of Tehran Pub,Tehran

    *Niazpour, A., (2017), Criminal Law of Children and Adolescents (Child and Adolescent Crime Response Process), Mizan Pub., Tehran


    *Binazadeh, F., Raisi, L.,(2020), “Legal and Judicial Developments on Drugs Control in the UNGASS Countries”, Vol. 50, Issue 1, pp. 401-421

    *Ghorbani, E., (2016), “Comparative study of the strengths and weaknesses of narcotics and psychotropic substances Conventions in 1961, 1971 and 1988, and explain the similarities and differences between the laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran”, Police International Studies Journal, Volume 7, Issue 27 pp.61-90

    *Moradi, Kh., (2015), “Analysis of the Judicial Situation of the Child in Iranian Law and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Impact on Public Order and Security”, Disciplinary knowledge  Journal, Vol.22, pp. 83-100

    *Rahimipoor I, Habibzadeh M J, Mohaghegh Damad M, Farajiha M, (2016) “A Comparative Study of Iran Legislative Policy with Portugal and Canada”, Comparative Law Researches, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, pp.84-110


    *Anti-Drugs Code and Subsequent Amendments, 1997-2016,

    *Child and Adolescent Protection Code, 2020,

    *Criminal Procedure Code, 2015,

    *Islamic Penal Code, 2013