Document Type : Article
Ph.D. Candidate in International Law, Department of International Law, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran
Associate Prof., Department of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Hazrate Masoume, Qom, Iran
The concept of fragmentation of international law entered legal literature about 150 years ago. It represents the interaction between the proponents of plurality and unity in international law. The establishment of various international courts and tribunals has led to the plurality of interpretations in the realm of norms (the normative aspect of fragmentation) as well as jurisdictions (the institutional aspect of fragmentation). It also reflects the concern over incoherence in the development and interpretation of international law. The consequences of international-law fragmentation have ensued in international human rights law too. This article attempts to compare identical norms on international criminal responsibility which have acquired different meanings under different regimes or mechanisms. It deals with changes to human rights treaty norms in the realm of international individual responsibility. The paper will also examine the effect of international-law fragmentation on the development of human rights standards.
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Refrences In Persian:
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- B) Articles
- Mahmoudi ,Mehran,Rabiee Faradabne, Alireza,(2015),”Human Rights and the Integrity of Law:the Achievements of Human Rights Regional Courts”, Civil and Criminal Quarterly, No.26 (in Persian).
- Shahbazi, Aramesh (2010),” The Plurality of International Judicial system“, Public Law Research Quarterly, No.12 (in Persian).