Document Type : Article


1 . Assistant Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Student in International Law, School of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Peremptory norms can preserve the order, values, and objectives of a legal system. If a legal system contains peremptory norms, they indicate its advancement. Since the conclusion of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, there has been a great deal of criticism regarding the ambiguity of and contradiction in the definition of peremptory norms. Many jurists and schools of international law have developed various theories on the concept of jus cogens that tie its non-derogable characteristic to different foundations. In this article, the writer, applying pure legal techniques, will study the peremptory norms’ recognition elements and will try to reconcile different legal theories regarding the basis of jus cogens, using a dialectical method. Eventually, a comprehensive criterion for recognition of peremptory norms will be presented.


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