Document Type : Article


1 Associate Professor of Public Law Department, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD in Public International Law, Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran and University Lecturer.

3 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Tehran Shomal, Tehran, Iran


The plurality of norms in some areas of human rights with poor enforcement guarantees, on one hand, and the interpretation of international security in the domain of national interests, on the other, have kept disrupting the international relations of states regarding human rights. Inevitably, it will require the identification of a new approach to international law-making that leads to a focus on a system of cooperation between states in the field of legal norms and political equations, which, of course, is difficult. In this research, using a descriptive-analytical approach, we seek to provide an overview of the need for international cooperation between states and to critique the challenges that it faces in implementing human rights law. The findings of this study suggest that strengthening the mechanism of enforcement by international institutions and developing mechanisms to institutionalize the cooperation of states, not in the form of political responsibility but in the form of legal responsibility that would be desirable solutions.


  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

  1. حسن‌وند، محسن (1393)، مسئولیت حمایت، تهران: شرکت سهامی انتشار.
  2. دلخوش، علیرضا (1390)، مقابله با جرائم بین‌المللی: تعهد دولت‌ها به همکاری، تهران: شهر دانش.
  3. فلسفی، هدایت‌الله (1390)، صلح جاویدان و حکومت قانون دیالکتیک همانندی و تفاوت، فرهنگ، تهران: نشر نو.


ب) مقالات

  1. پورخاقان، زینب؛ یعقوب‌پور، رزا؛ حیدرپور، حمیدرضا (1397)، «مفهوم، جایگاه و کارکرد اصل مراقبت مقتضی در حقوق بین‌الملل کیفری (با تمرکز بر تعهد دولت‌ها به همکاری با دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی)»، فصلنامة تحقیقات حقوق خصوصی و کیفری، دورة 14، ش 4.
  2. صالحی، جواد (1392)، «قطعنامة ۱۵۹۳ شورای امنیت در الزام دولت‌ها به همکاری با دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی»، مطالعات بین‌المللی پلیس، دورة ۴، ش۱۶.
  3. محمدی، احسانه؛ حاجی یوسفی، امیرمحمد (1397)، «هویت، قدرت و امنیت در سیاست خارجی جمهوری اسلامی ایران: یک چارچوب نظری»، پژوهشنامة علوم سیاسی، ش 2.
  4. نوریان، اردشیر (1388)، «منازعه و همکاری در روابط بین‌الملل: نقش قدرت در حفظ صلح و امنیت جهاتی»، فصلنامة سیاست خارجی، ش 1.


  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Books
  3. Alison, graham &, Black will, Robert D, (2011), Russia and US National Interests: Why Should Americans Care, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University Press.
  4. Anderson Falk, Richard, (1991), Theory, Realism, and world Security in World Security; Trends and Challenges at Century’s End, New York, St. Martin’s Press.
  5. Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2006) , Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, New York, w.w. Norton.
  6. Brisk, Alison & Shafir, Gershon, (2007), National Insecurity and Human Rights: Democracies Debate Counterterrorism, University of California Press.
  7. Colliard, Cloud_ Albert (1966), Institutions Internationals, Précis Dalloz, Troisième Edition.
  8. Coicaud, Jean Marc & Wheeler, Nicholas J, (2008), National Interest and International Solidarity, United Nations University Press.
  9. Czaplinski, Wladyslaw (2005), Universalism, Regionalism & Localism in the Age of Globalization, in: Towards World Constitutionalism, Ed by Ronald st. John Mocdonald & Douglas M. johston, N.P.
  10. Eslami , Reza (2013), Human Rights Activism: Theory & Practice, Tehran:Jungle Pub.
  11. Francisco, Forrest Martin (1997), International Human Rights, Law and Practice: Cases, Treaties and Materials, The Hague; London. Kluwer Law International.
  12. Hannikainen, Lauri (1988), Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) in International Law, Lakimiesliito Kustannus, Helsink.
  13. Huntington, Samuel (1961), the Common Defense, New York, Columbia University Press.
  14. Kamelia, Kemileva & Benjamin, Lee, (2010), Expertise in Human Rights Council, a Policy Paper Prepared under the Auspices of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, Geneva.
  15. Luis, Alfonso De Alba (2008), International Geneva Yearbook, United Nations Publications, New York.
  16. Salomon, Margot E., (2007), Global Responsibility for Human Rights, Oxford University Press.
  17. Simma, Bruno, et al., (2013), The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary (Oxford Commentaries on International Law) 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press.
  18. Morgenthau, Hans (1961), Power and Ideology in International Politics; In International Politics and Foreign Policy, Ed By Tames Roesenau, New York, Free Press.
  19. Oppenheim, F, (1991), The Place of Morality in Foreign Policy, Lexington Books: Massachusetts.
  20. Posner, Sarah (2009), Human Rights and US National Security Post 9/11 A Comprehensive Analysis of US Human Rights Policy During the War on Terror, Submitted to the Faculty of University Honors Collegue in Partial Fulfillment of the Rquirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh.
  21. Purna, Sen & Monica, Vincent (2011), Universal Periodic Review of Human Rights: Towards Best Practice, Londonـ UK.
  22. Rosenau, James N, (1961), International Politics and Foreign Policy: A Reader in Research and Theory, New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
  23. United Nation (1998), Yearbook of the United Nation, New York; Department of Public Information.
  24. United Nation (1994) UN Action in Field of Human Rights, New York; United Nation Publication.
  25. UNCTAD/NGLS (2008), the United Nations Human Rights System: How to Make it Work for You, UN Press.
  26. Wheeler, Nicholas J, (1997), Humanitarian Intervention and World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, Oxford University Press.


B( Articles

  1. Burke white, William W, (2004), “Human Rights and National Security: The Strategic Correlation”, Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol.17.
  2. Gabrielle Kirk McDonald (2004), “Problems, Obstacles and Achievements of the ICTY”, JICJ, No.2.
  3. G20Statement on the Fight Against Terrorism, Antalya”, Turkey, 16 November 2015. available at
  4. Mc Harg, Aileen (1999), “Reconciling Human Rights and the Public Interest: Conceptual Problems & Doctrinal Uncertainty in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights”, pub. Wiley Blackwell, the Modern Law Review, Vol. 62, No 5.
  5. Scharf, Michael P, (2000), “The Tools for Enforcing International Criminal Justice in New Millennium: Lessons from the Yugoslav Tribunal”, De Paul Law Review, Vol. 49.
  6. Spulveda Carmona, Magdalena (2009), “The Obligation of International Assistance and Cooperation under The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. A Possible Entry Point to a Human Rights Based Approach to Millennium Development Goal”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 13, No.1.
  7. Tihomir Blaskic (1997), ICTY, A.Ch. 29.10.1997.
  8. Vandenhole, Wouter (2007), “ Is There a Legal Obligation to Cooperate Internationally for Development?”, The International Journal of Children’s Rights.

33.Wolfrum, Rüdiger (1986), “International Law of Cooperation, Encyclopedia of Public International Law”, ELSEVIER SCIENCE publishers B.V., North_ Holland vol.9.


C( Documents

  1. A/RES/2625(XXV), 24 Oct. 1970, Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation Among States.
  2. Salamanca Aguado, M.E, (2015), International Solidarity and Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations, Geneva, Meeting. Room XXIII, Parallel Event of the Independent Expert on Human Rights & International Solidarity and Civil Society Organizations to Gather in Put on the Proposed Draft Declaration on the Right to International Solidarity, 16 June.
  3. Report of the High- Level Panel ON Threats, Challenges and Change, A more secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, General Assembly, 2 December 2004 (A/59/565).


D( Reports

  1. A/HRC/30/49, 2015.
  2. UN-GA, Res 57/217, 18 Dec.2000.
  3. UN-GA, Res 56/152, 19 Dec.2001.
  4. UN-GA, Res 55/101, 4 Dec.2000.
  5. UN Doc. A/HRC/S-9/l.1,12 January 2009.
  6. UN Doc. S/25704 (1993).
  7. UN- S/Res/2178/24 Sep 2014.
  8. ICC-ASP/14/Res.2/2015.
  9. ICC-ASP/14/Res.3/2015.