Document Type : Article


1 Prof., Department of Public & International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Public Law, Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Human rights, is one of the emerging concepts that is in conflict with sovereignty, in its traditional sense. The African continent, which symbolized colonialism, dictatorship, and human right abuses in the past centuries, is now trying to change the situation in favor of human beings by creating judicial structures for the protection of human rights. Africa’s judicial system of human rights protection, with its practice and the endeavor to update its main instrument, is trying to improve the human rights situation in Africa. The extensive referral to international human rights literature and the excessive attention to the European human rights judicial system are respectively the strength and weakness of the African Human rights system. The lack of real sovereignty in the past and tribal definitions of sovereignty and human beings, are serious obstacles to the efficient functioning of the African continent’s judicial system for the protection of human rights.


  1. A) Books
  2. Bartkus, Viva Ona (1999). The dynamic of secession, London: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Buchanan, Allen (2007), Justice, legitimacy, and self-determination: moral foundation for international law, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Cassese, Antonio, (1995), Self-determination of peoples: a legal reappraisal,New York: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Crawford, James, (2006). The creation of states in international law. New York, Oxford University Press.
  6. Dugard, John, & David Raic, (2006), The role of recognition in the law and practice, in Kohen, M, G. Secession: International Law Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Durojaye, Ebenezer and Gladys Mirugi-Mukundi, (2020), Exploring the link between poverty and human rights in Africa, Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press.
  8. Green, Christian (2019), Law, Religion and Human Flourishing in Africa, Stellenbosch, African Sun Media
  9. Greffrath, Wynand, (2017). Understanding the Relationship Between Human Rights Abuse, State Dysfunction and Postcolonial Sovereignty in Africa, Potchefstroom, North-West University.
  10. Mehrpour, Hossein (2018), International Human Rights System, Tehran, Etela’at Publication (In Persian).
  11. Murray, Rachel (2019), The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: A Commentary, Oxford, Oxford University Press
  12. Naldi, Gino (2002), Future Trends in Human Rights in Africa: The Increased Role of the OAU, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
  13. Zewudie Tilahum Adamu (2020), Toward an Effective African Human Rights System: The Nature and Implications of the Relationship Between the African Union Policy Organs and Human Rights Bodies, In: Addaney M., Nyarko M., Boshoff E. (eds) Governance, Human Rights, and Political Transformation in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.


  1. B) Articles
  2. African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights”, Journal of Legal Research, Vol. 50, PP. 319-371 (In Persian).
  3. Antigegn, Getahun Kumie (2020), “The Role of African Court on Human and Peoples’ Right for Human Rights Protection: The Case of Libyan Crises”, Advanced Journal of Social Science, Vol. 7, Issue 1, pp. 38-43 .
  4. Ebrahimgol, Alireza & Siamak Karimi, (2016), “Confrontation of Territorial Integrity and Human Rights: A Legal Assessment of Remedial Secession”, Iranian Journal of International Politics, Vol. 7, pp. 1-27 (In Persian).
  5. Getahun, Temelso Gashaw (2019), “Descriptive overview of the African human rights system”, Çukurova Araştırmaları, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 123-137.
  6. Haddadi, Mahdi & Siamak Karimi, (2015), “Human Rights Violations and Separatism: A Critical Approach to Remedial Secession in International Law”, Journal of Legal Studies, University of Tehran, Vol. 45, pp. 715-736 (In Persian).
  7. Muigua, Kariuki (2020), “African Court of Justice and Human Rights: Emerging Jurisprudence”, Kariuki Muigua and Company Advocates, June, pp.1-19.
  8. Nyerere, Julius (2006), “Without Unity, there is no Future for Africa”, Speech Delivered in Accra on 6 March1997 on the occasion of Ghan’s 40th independence Anniversary, Reprinted in New African, P448.
  9. Okere, B. Obina, (1984), “The Protection of Human Rights in Africa and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: A Comparative Analysis with the European and American Systems”, Human Rights Quarterly,Vol. 6, No.2, pp. 141-159.
  10. Ooreoluwa, Agbede, (2020), “Africa and Human Rights: Past, Present and Future” SSRN, pp.1-11.
  11. Otieno, Juma Thomas and Ken Oluoch, (2014), “The African- State Sovereignty in the 21st Century on Spotlight: Building Paradigms”, Moi University,Vol. 3, pp.120-133.
  12. Ramezani qavamabadi, Mohammadhossein & Mansour Bahmaie (2017), “Achieving International Criminal Justice in Africa: Obstacles and Solutions”, Journal of Legal Studies, University of Tehran, Vol. 47, Issue 1, pp. 1-26 (In Persian).
  13. Ramezani qavamabadi, Mohammadhossein, (2015), “Establishment of the African Criminal Court: Myth or Reality?”, Legal Journal of Justice, Year 78, Vol. 86, pp. 93-118 (In Persian).
  14. Ramezani qavamabadi, Mohammadhossein, (2018), “The gradual development of regional criminal justice with an emphasis on the African Court of Justice and Human Rights”, Criminal Law Research, Year 6, Vol. 22, pp. 261-283 (In Persian).
  15. Wachira, George Mukundi (2007), “Sovereignty and the United States of Africa: Insights from the EU”, ISS, Paper 144, pp. 1-14
  16. Zamani, Seyedqasem (2014), “Threats of non-cooperation with the International Criminal Court and the ambiguous future of criminal justice on the Black Continent”, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Research, Vol.2, 2nd half year, pp. 43-68 (In Persian).
  17. Zschirnt, Simon (2020), "Opening the Doors to Justice in Africa: Analyzing State Acceptance of the Right of Individual Application to the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights", The Transnational Human Rights Review, Vol. 7, pp. 1-39.


  1. C) Documents
  2. African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.
  3. African union. Advisory opinion on the UN declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples.
  4. Charter of OAU.
  5. Human Rights Committee, General Observation No 34, Article 19: Freedom of Opinion and Freedom of Expression.
  6. Human Rights Library (HRL), University of Minnesota (1995). Katangese peoples' congress v. Zaire, African commission on human and peoples' rights, Comm. No. 75/92.
  7. Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights.
  8. Statistical Summary of African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights.


  1. D) Cases
  2. African Court, (2011), African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights v. Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, App. No. 004/2011.
  3. African Court, (2013), African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights v Libya (provisional measures), App. No. 002/2013.
  4. African Court, (2013), African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights v Kenya (provisional measures), 006/2012.
  5. African Court, (2015), Alex Thomas V Tanzania, App. No. 005/2013.
  6. African Court, (2016), Armand Guehi V Tanzania, App. No. 001.2015.
  7. African Court, (2013), Atabong Denis Atemnkeng v African Union, App. No. 014/2011.
  8. African Court, (1999), Human Rights Committee, Keun-Tae Kim v The Republic of Korea, Communication No. 574/1994.
  9. African Court, (2016), Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza V Rwanda, App. No. 003/2014.
  10. African Court, (2013), Karata Ernest and Others v Tanzania, App. No 002/2017.
  11. African Court, (2013), Lohé lssa Konaté v Burkina Faso, App. No. 004/2013.
  12. African Court, (2015), Nguza Viking and Johnson Nguza v. United Republic of Tanzania, App. No. 006/2015, and Amiri Ramadhani v. United Republic of Tanzania, App. No. 010/2015.
  13. African Court, (2011), Tanganyika Law Society, Legal and Human Rights Centre and Reverend Christopher R Mtikila v Tanzania, App. No.009 & 011/2011.