Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Prof, Public Law Department, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. student in International Law, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Prevention and Compensation are two major aims that international conventions on marine pollution have dealt with. The success of international regime to combat marine pollution, widely depends on the power of sanctions adopted by international conventions. Since there are different sources which cause marine pollution likes ships and shore. In this article, based on descriptive-analytical method, the subject of ship arrest and detain as a practical sanction to combat ship-source marine pollution has been discussed. It seems that international conventions built up a practical tool that can be used both in pollution prevention cases as well as compensation of pollution damage cases.


  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‏ها

  1. تاناکا، یوشیمی (1395)، حقوق بینالملل دریاها، ترجمه‌ی آرمین طلعت، تهران، شهر دانش.
  2. تقی‌زاده‌ انصاری، مصطفی (1393)، حقوق بینالملل محیط زیست، تهران، انتشارت خرسندی.
  3. صدیق ، حسن (1395)، اصول کلی حقوق دریایی، تهران ، انتشارات جنگل.


ب) پایان‏نامه‏ها

  1. اخگر، محمدحسن (1396). «تحلیل حقوق حمل‌ونقل دریایی از منظر مدیریت ریسک»، پایاننامه‌ی دکترای حقوق خصوصی، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران.
  2. زواره‌ی طباطبایی، فائزه (1378). «تسریع در آزادسازی کشتی و خدمه در کنوانسیون 1982 حقوق دریاها»، پایاننامه‌ی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تهران.


  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Books
  3. Berlingieri (2011), Arrest of Ships, a Commentary on the 1952 and 1999 Arrest Conventions, fifth edition, Informa.
  4. Chauvel, A. M. (1997), Managing Safety and Quality in Shipping, The Nautical Institute London.
  5. Dupuy Pierre-Marie & Vinuales Jorge E (2016), “ International Environmental Law” , Cambridge
  6. Mandaraka-Sheppard, A. (2002), Modern Admiralty Law, Cavandish Publishing Limited.
  7. Özbek. G, Deniz.M (2007). The Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Sea, Hamburg Studies on Maritime Affairs, Vol. 12, Springer.
  8. Ruiz Abou-Nigm, V. (2011), The Arrest of Ships in Private International Law, Oxford University Press.
  9. Sedigh, Hasan (2016), The General Principals of Maritime Law , Jungle Publication (In Persian).
  10. Sullivan, Eric (1992), The Marine Encyclopedic Dictionary, third edition/LLP/.
  11. Taghizade Ansari , Mostafa (2014), International Environmental law , Khorsandi Publication. (In Persian).
  12. Tanaka, Yoshifumi(2016) , International Law of the Sea ,Translated by Armin Talaat ,Shahre Danesh Publication (In Persian).


  1. B) Articles
  2. Bishop. Archie (2012), ‘The Development of Environmental Salvage and Review of the London Salvage Convention 1989”, Tulane Maritime Law Journal 65.
  3. Ekhator, E (2016), “Protection of Environment and the International Salvage Convention 1989, as assessment “MIZAN LAW REVIEW,Vol. 10, No.1

  1. Kiehne, G. (1996), “Investigation, Detention and Release of Ships under the Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Part State Control, a View from Practice”, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 11(2).
  2. Krishna Kiran, RB. (2010), “Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage; An Examination of IMO Convention”, NUJS Law Review, Vol. 3.
  3. Nikcevic Gradinic. J and ,Nikcevic,G (2012),“ Arrest of Ships, The international conventions on Arrest of Ships”, Transaction on Maritime Science ,
  4. Tsimplis, M. (2011). “Marine Pollution from Shipping Activities”, Maritime Law, edited by Yvonne Baatz, second edition, Sweet & Maxwell.


  1. C) Thesis
  2. Akhgar , Mohamad Hasan (2017), Analysis of Carriage by Sea Law from Risk Management point of view, Doctoral Thesis in Private Law , University of Tehran, College of Farabi (In Persian).
  3. Farnk, V. (2006), The European Community and Marine Environmental Protection in the International Law of the Sea: Implementing Global Obligations at the Regional Level, Doctoral thesis Utrecht University.
  4. Isikova, Nadiya (2012), “The Ship Arrest Conventions of 1952 and 1999 : international and Ukrainian perspectives". World Maritime University Dissertations. 7.
  5. Kassem, AH (2006),” The Legal Aspects of Seaworthiness : current law and developments” Ph.D Thesis , Swansea University,Wells , UK
  6. Kirchner, A (2019),” Rise of Machine- A legal Analysis of Seaworthiness in the context of autonomous Shipping” Master Dissertation , Lund University, Sweden

  1. Zavareh Tabatabaei, Faezeh (1999), Prompt Release of vessel and crew under UNCLOS 1982 , LLM Dissertation , Tehran University (In Persian).


  1. D) Documents
  2. 2001/106/EC (amending Directive 95/21/WC) on enforcement of international safety, pollution prevention and working standards on ships calling EC ports.
  3. 2009/16/EC. :32009L0016&rid=5
  4. Convention Relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material. Volume%20974/volume-974-I-120-English.pdf

  1. IMO Resolution A.1052(27) Adopted on 30 November 2011.
  2. International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.
  3. International convention on Arrest of ships 1999 /PublicationsLibrary/aconf188d6_en.pdf
  4. International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage.
  5. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969 amended on 1992. /Text_of_Conventions_e_01.pdf
  6. International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, 2010. Consolidated%20text.pdf
  7. International convention on Salvage 1989. /_download/repository/1989_Salvage_convention.pdf
  8. International convention relating to arrest of sea-going ships 1952
  9. MARPOL - International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships Amended by Resolution MEPC.111(50) Amended by Resolution MEPC.115(51) Amended by Resolution MEPC.116(51). /Projecto-Navios-I/IMO- onventions%20%28copies%29/MARPOL.pdf
  10. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982