Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. in International Law, Department of Law, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Prof., Department of Law, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish, Iran


In terms of the relationship between human rights and trade, the two notions of due diligence and corporate social responsibility of commercial companies, have the capacity to interact and exchange objectively and practically with each other. Both concepts, taking into account their raison d’être, nature, characteristics, require the establishment of a mechanism of accountability ensuring fair treatment in the management of multinational corporations. The present article describes and analyzes the relationship between responsibility and due diligence on the basis of international instruments, particularly UN guiding principles. It proposes a new definition for risk management which is based on due diligence. It also deals with how to reduce social risks and promote respect for human rights in the framework of multinationals activities. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the interconnection between the two concepts, as a model for fair social cooperation and drawing on international human rights law as well as economic and sociological concepts, provides new accountability mechanisms for corporations. Through the precautionary principle as a confluence point, it is established that the realization of due diligence-based responsibility is necessary to manage companies' brands, while reducing harms to human rights of stakeholders.


  1. A) Books
  2. Askari, Pouria (2012): The Law of Foreign Investment in International Arbitration Practice, first edition, Tehran: Shahr-e -Danesh Institute of Law Publication (In Persian).
  3. Beck, Ulric (1992), Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, translated by Reza Fazel & Mehdi Farahmand Nejad: Tehran Sales Publication (In Persian).
  4. Benn, Suzanne & Boltone, Dianne (2011), Key Concepts in Corporate Social Responsibility, Sage Publications.
  5. Bix, Brian, H. (2004), A Dictionary of Legal Theory, translated by Mohammad Rasekh: Tehran, Nashre Ney Publication, third edition (In Persian).
  6. Deville, A. & Harding, R (1997), Applying the Precautionary Principle.Annandale,NSW: Federation Press.
  7. Faraji, Yousef (2008), Microeconomic Theory,Tehran, Commercial Print and Publications Company (In Persian).
  8. Hubbard, Douglas W. (2009), The Failure of Risk Management: Why It’s Broken and How to Fix It. John Wiley & Sons.
  9. Lovett, Frank (2011), Rawls's A Theory of justice: A Reader's Guide, translated by Mohammad Molaabasi, Tehran, Tarjoman, Publication, first edition (In Persian).
  10. Mas Collel, A; Whiston, M. D; Green, J.R, (1995), Game Theory (Microeconomic Theory), translated by: M. Etesami , Reviewed by M.T. Mohebbi, Tehran, University of Imam Sadiq Publication (In Persian).
  11. Osborne, Martin J. and Rubinstein, A. (1994), A Course in Game Theory, MIT press.
  12. Pedersen, Esben, R.G. (2015), Corporate Social Responsibility, London, Sage Publication.
  13. Rawls, John (1999): A Theory of Justice, translated by Morteza Nouri: Tehran, Nashre Markaz Publication, second edition (In persian).
  14. Shaygan,Faride,(2007),Right to Development,Tehran,University of Tehran,Faculty of Law and Political Science Publication (In Persian).
  15. Suttle, Oisin (2018), Distributive Justice and World Trade law, a Political Economy Theory of International Trade Regulation, Cambridge University Press.


  1. B) Articles
  2. Bantekas, Ilias (2004),"Corporate Social Responsibility in International Law", Boston University International Law Journal ,Vol. 22, pp. 309-347.
  3. Chen, Ling (2016), “Realizing the Precautionary Principle in Due Diligence”, Dalhousie Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.1-23.
  4. Freeman, R. Edward & McVea, John (2001), “A Stakeholder Approach to Strategic Management.”, Dardan Business School Working Paper, No.1-2.
  5. Friedman, M., (2007), "The Social Resposibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profit", Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance Journal.Springer Link, pp.173-178.
  6. Heyvaert, Veerle (2009), “Hybrid Norms in International Law.” LSE Law, Society and Economy Working Papers at: and the Social Sciences Research Network electronic library at:
  7. Kytle, Beth & Ruggie,J.G.(2005), “Corporate Social Responsibility as Risk Management.” Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative Working Paper 10.
  8. Maclean, Jason. 2009. “Chapter 9: Principle Precautionary Principle.” Pp. 347–416 in Corporate social responsibility: a legal analysis.
  9. Mares,Radu." Due Diligence in International Law and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)",available at : visited :30 July 2019)
  10. Matwijkiw, Anja & Matwijkiw, B.(2013), “A Stakeholder Approach to International Human Rights|.” Revue International Droit Penal,Vol.84, No.3, pp.405-432.
  11. Stefanik, Kirsten. (2017), “Rise of the Corporation and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case for Corporate Customary International Law.” Canadian Yearbook of International Law/Annuaire Canadien de Droit International , Vol. 54, pp.276–308.
  12. Townley, Stephen (2018),"The Rise of Risk in International Law", Chicago Journal of International Law ,Vol. 18, No.2, pp.594-646.
  13. Van Dor Vorst. Jack (2004),"Supply Chain Management,Theory and Practice" ,available visited:12/Aug/2019)
  14. Kad Khodaei, Abbasali.& Salari, Asma (2018), Precautionary in International Law: “A customary Principle or a General principle of Law”? Quarterly journal of Public Law Research, year 20. No.59, pp: 33-63 (In Persian).
  15. Latifian, Mohammad Hossein, (2013), “Multinational Corporations and Human Rights Restrictions” : Revue de Recherche Juridique, Shahid Beheshti Universityو faculty of law, Vol 15, No 60. pp: 551-618. (In Persian).
  16. Mahmoodi,S.Hadi & Seddiqian Kashani,Mansoureh,(2018), “Human Rights Obligations and Transnational Corporations with Emphasis on Human Rights Council Approach”,Quarterly Journal of Comparative Law Studies,University of Tehran Publication, Vol .9,No.2,pp.829-849.(In Persian).
  17. Nori Yoshan loey, Jafar & Johar, Saeed (2015), “The Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility in Germany, France, Britain and Iran with Comparative Approach”, Quarterly Journal of Comparative law studies, University of Tehran, publication, vol. 5, No. 2. pp: 603-627 (In Persian).
  18. Viteri Gualinga, Carlos, (1999), “The Oil Flows, and the Forests Bleeds”translated by Davood Tabaie.Journal of Payame Unesco, Iranian National Commission for Unesco year 30, N. 347, pp: 12-13 (In Persian).


  1. C) Documents and Cases
  2. Communication From The Commission to The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee of The Regions, 2011.
  3. Guiding Principle on Business and Human Rights: Implementing The United Nations, Protect, Respect, and Remedy Framework /A / HRC /17/31/2011.
  4. International Law Association, Washington Conference Report: Legal Principles relating to Climate Change (2014).
  5. International Law Commission, Draft Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities, with Commentaries (2001).
  6. International Court of Justice, (1986), Military and Para Military Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. US), ICJ, Reports 1986.
  7. International Court of Justice, (2010), Pulp Mills on The River Uruguay Case, (Argentina v. Uruguay), ICJ, Reports 2010..
  8. Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, John Ruggie, 7 April 2008,A/HRC/8/5
  9. Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, John Ruggie, 22 April 2009,A/HRC/11/13
  10. Promotion of A Democratic and Equitable International Order, General Assembly, UN Doc. A/RES/66/159, 19 December 2011.
  11. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS), 2001, available at: < tabid/2232/ Default.aspx >.
  12. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN Doc. A/RES/217(III) A, 10 December 1948.
  13. UN Global Compact, 26 July 2000, available at: https// what-is-gc/mission principles(last visited:30/July/2019)
  14. UN Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, An Interpretive Guide, HR/PUB/12/02, 2012.