Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. Student in Public International Law, Department of Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., 1-Department of Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


The concept of sexual crimes in times of armed conflicts has provoked a very serious debate in international criminal law. At the same time, the jurisprudence of ICTY and ICTR on issues such as victim’s consent has led to more progressive definitions of rape and other forms of sexual violence in the context of armed conflict. Nevertheless, the diversity of opinions delivered by the different branches of the two tribunals has foreshadowed further development in formulating coherent definitions of war-time sexual crimes. This study aims to address the developments underscoring sexual crimes in the jurisprudence of ICTY and ICTR. Employing an analytical descriptive approach, the paper argues that the silence of the tribunals' statutes on the question of sexual crimes has caused a qualification of these offenses under such headings as war crimes or crimes against humanity. Whether this is a welcome development or not, will be further discussed in this paper.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Cryer, Robert & others (2008), An Introduction To International Criminal Law And Procedure, translated by :Armaghan Obeiri & Others, Tehran: Khorsandi Pubications.
    3. Erikson, Maria (2010), Defining Rape: Emerging Obligation for State under International Law? , Örebro University.
    4. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie; Doswald-Beck, Louise (2008), Customary International Humanitarian Law, Tehran: Majd Publications.
    5. Schabas, William (2006),The UN International Criminal Tribunals,The Former Yugoslavia ,Rwanda And Sierra Leone, Cambridge University Press.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Aleshkina, M. (2016), “Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict under International Law”,Master's thesis, faculty of law,University of Osloensis
    3. Aptel, Cecile & Williamson, Jamie A (2000), “A Commentary on the Musema Judgment Rendered by the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda”, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 1.
    4. Dixon, Rosalind (2002),” Rape as A Crime In International Humanitarian Law: Where To From Here?” , Europian Journal of International Law ,Vol.13,No.3.
    5. Fabijanic Ggro, Sandra (2010),”The Crime Of Rape in the ICTY’s & ICTY’S Case Law“, Rijeka University, Zbornik PFZ,60,(3).
    6. Gong-Gershowitz, Jenifer (2009), ”Forced Marriage: A “ New” Crime Against Humanity ?”, Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights,Vol.8.
    7. L. Haffajee, Rebecca (2006), “Prosecuting Crimes of Rape and Sexual Violence at the ICTR: The Application of Joint Criminal Enterprise Theory”, Harvard Journal of Law & Gender, Vol. 29.
    8. Oosterveld, Velerie (2011),”The Gender Jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra Leon: Progress In The Revolutionary United From Judgments “, Cornell International Law Journal, Vol.44.
    9. Palmer, Amy (2009),”An Evolutionary Analysis of Gender –Based War Crimes and the Continued Tolerance of “Foeced Marriage”, Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, Vol.7.
    10. Ruiz, Laetitia (2016).“Gender Jurisprudence for Gender Crimes? ”, International Crimes Database.
    11. Soares, Miguel De Serpa (2014), “ABA Day at the UN “, American Bar Association, United Nations Office of Legal Affairs.
    12. Weiner, Phillip (2013), “The Evolving Jurisprudence of The Crime of Rape In International Criminal Law”, Boston College Law Review, Vol. 54, Issue 3, Article.


    1. C) Documents
    2. ICTR, The Prosecutor v.Jean-Paul Akayesu, Case No. ICTR-96-4-T, 2 September 1998.
    3. ICTR, The Prosecutor v.Musema,The Trail Chamber, Case No. : ICTR-96-13-A, 2000.
    4. ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Delalic and Others, Trail judgment, Case No.: IT-96-21-T,1988.
    5. ICTY, The Prosecutor v.Anto Furundzija, Case No. : IT-95-17/1-PT, 1998.
    6. ICTY, The Prosecutor v.Dusko Tadic, Decision on the Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction, 1995.
    7. ICTY, The Prosecutor v.Dusko Tadic, The Appeal Chamber, Case No: IT-94-1-A,1999.
    8. ICTY, The Prosecutor v.Dusko Tadic, The Trail Chamber, Case No: IT-94-1-T, 1997.
    9. ICTY, The Prosecutor v.Kunarac & Kovac & Vukovic, Case No. : IT-96-23-T& IT-96-23/1-T,2001.
    10. ICTY, The Prosecutor v.Kunarac, Kovac & Vukovic, The Appeal Judgment, 2002.
    11. International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, Case No. IT-94-1-A-R77, 31 January 2000.
    12. The Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (1994).
    13. The Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1993).


    References In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Aghaei Janatmakan, Hussein (2014), International criminal Law(Collection of Instruments),Tehran: Jungle Publications (In Persian).
    3. Hussein, Mirmohammad sadegi (2014), International Criminal Court, Tehran: Dadgostar Publications (In Persian).
    4. Kittichaisaree, Kriangsak (2017), International Criminal Law ,Translated by: Behnam Yousefian &Mohammad Esmaili, Tehran: Khorsandi Publications (In Persian).
    5. Momeni, Mahdi (2017), International Cirimilal Law, Tehran, Shar-E-Danesh Publications (In Persian).
    6. Yavari, Fatemeh (2018), To Criticize The Protective Mechanisms For Female Victims of Sexual Violence In Armed Conflicts, Tehran: Mizan Publications (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Balkhi, Balkhi; Azadbakht, Farideh (2014), “Sierra Leone Special Court Review: Principles, Achievements and Challenges ", International Criminal Courts, Under the supervision of Dr. Mehdi Zakerian, Tehran,Tisa Pubications, pp.283-306 (In Persian).
    3. Beigi, Jamal; Ashna, Hamid (2019), "Criminalization of Sexual Violence In Marital Relations Based On International Human Rights Instruments", Quarterly Journal of International Studies, Year 16, NO. 2 (62), PP.115-142 (In Persian).
    4. Brigette, Stern; Fouchard, Isabelle (2014), "Sexual Violence as Genocide: The Importance of the Basioni Commission's Role in the Recent Development of International Criminal Law", Essays in Honor of Mohammad Charif Bassiouni ,Translated by Seyed Reza Rafiei,Tehran,Shar-e-danesh Publications, pp.293-330 (In Persian).
    5. Rouzbhan, Mohsen (2014), Sierra Leone Special Court Review: Principles, Achievements and Challenges, International Criminal Courts, under the Supervision of Dr. Mehdi Zakerian, First Edition, Tehran, Tisa Publications, pp.55-104 (In Persian).