Document Type : Article


1 Associate Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


The explanation of human behavior in the practical wisdom of tradition is teleological. From Aristotle to Islamic scholars, despite their differences, human actions are considered to be aimed at perfection, and since they attribute the form and truth of behavior to its purpose, they judge its decency or indecency based on the purpose of the behavior through a normative approach. However, with the beginning of the modern era, the basis for explaining human behavior evolved to a mechanistic approach. This change of approach appeared in Descartes' philosophy, expanded with Hobbes, and culminated with Spinoza. In modern mechanism, human behavior is explained within the framework of a mechanical view of the world and the forces that govern it. Accordingly, the explanation of criminal behavior changes from the traditional teleology of practical wisdom to the perception of criminal behavior as a chain of causal and necessary relationships in human nature. This  approach is the starting point for the the economic identity of crime in the modern era.


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