Document Type : Article
1 Ph.D. Student in Public Law, Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Islamic Azad University of Science Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 ssociate Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
3 Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Freedom of the media guarantees the right to freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers. However, it is frequently challenged and restricted due to government action. In this research, a descriptive-analytical method has been used to study media censorship as opposed to media freedom by emphasizing media activities in the United States. The question is how to distinguish the prohibition of censorship from the imposition of legitimate restrictions. It is proven that in a democratic society, the media enjoys rights and freedoms but it also has duties and responsibilities. Concepts such as national security, defamation, war, hate speech, and obscene content are considered reasonable basis upon which media freedom can be restricted. In determining media restrictions, the principle is freedom of the media and limitations should be interpreted strictly. Despite the fact that Congress is prohibited from limiting freedom of expression under the First Amendment to the US Constitution, both the federal and state legislators, as well as the US Supreme Court, have sought to impose reasonable restrictions on the media by setting precise criteria. In conclusion, restrictions on freedom of the media in the United States are precisely defined, and such restrictions make the media responsible.
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