Document Type : Article


1 Professor at Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

2 Former assistant professor at Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student in International Law at Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran


Transparency in international law refers to the accessibility of information about decisions and actions of the parties involved in international economic relations. In spite of existence of principle in various aspects of international economic law, its nature and content remains ambiguous. So, the question is whether transparency can be regarded as a binding legal principle. The present article through a descriptive-analytic study shows that transparency as a legal principle is a fundamental principles of international economic law that can be seen in state practices and international case laws. It also has all features listed for a legal principle. Thus, this concept can be recognized as an obligatory principle in various areas of international economic law, such as international investment law, international trade law, international monetary and financial law, and International commercial law. But, it should be considered that positivist approach to international law appears as an obstacle to implement and exercise of the principle in all detailed sub-division of above-mentioned areas.


  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

  1. زایدل ـ هوهن فلدرن، آیگناتس (1391)، حقوق بین‌الملل اقتصادی، ترجمة سیدقاسم زمانی، تهران: مؤسسة مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.
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  4. هردگن، ماتیاس (1398)، اصول حقوق بین‌الملل اقتصادی، ترجمة محمد ضیائی بیگدلی و صادق ضیائی بیگدلی، تهران: انتشارات گنج دانش.


ب) مقالات

  1. حسینی‌آزاد، سید علی؛ ابراهیمی، زهرا (1393)، «تردیدی پیش روی دولت‌ها: انقیاد به تعهدات حقوق بشری یا اجرای الزامات مقرره از جانب شورای امنیت»، مجلة تعالی حقوق، سال ششم، ش 6، ص150 ـ 113.
  2. غمامی، مجید؛ محسنی، حسن (1392)، «پیرامون برخی نوآوری‌ها و نقاط ضعف اصول آیین دادرسی مدنی فراملی»، فصلنامة حقوق، مجلة دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دورة 43، ش 2، ص 58 ـ 39.
  3. میرعباسی، سید باقر؛ محمدی، عقیل (1395)، «نقش و جایگاه سازمان‌های بین‌المللی غیردولتی به‌عنوان «دوست دادگاه» در نظام بین‌المللی حل‌وفصل اختلافات»، فصلنامة مطالعات حقوق عمومی دانشگاه تهران، دورة 46، ش 4، ص 769 ـ 753.


  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Books
  3. Ávila, Humberto (2007), Theory of Legal Principles, Dodrecht, Springer.
  4. Bianchi, Andrea & Peters, Anne C. (2013), Transparency in International Law, New York, Cambridge University Press.
  5. Buijze, Anoeska (2013), The principle of transparency in EU law, s-Hertogenbosch, Uitgeverij BOXPress.
  6. Cottier, Thomas; Jackson, John H. & Lastra, Rosa M. (2012), International Law in Financial Regulation and Monetary Affairs, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  7. Curtin, Deirdre (2009), Executive Power of the European Union: Law, Practices, and the Living Constitution, New York, Oxford University Press.
  8. Davies, Iwan (edr) (2019), Issues in International Commercial Law, London and New York, Routledge.
  9. Dworkin, Ronald (1978), Taking Rights Seriously, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
  10. Falsafi, Hedayatollah (2004), International Law of Treaties, Tehran: Farhang Nashr-e-No Publication (In Persian).
  11. Ghari S. Fatemi, S. Mohammed (2003), Human Rights in the Contemporary World, Vol. 1, Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Publication (In Persian).
  12. Herdegen, Matthias (2013), Principles of International Economic Law, New York, Oxford University Press.
  13. Herdegen, Matthias (2019). Principles of International Economic Law, translated by: Mohamed Ziae bigdeli and Sadegh Ziae bigdeli, Tehran: Gang-e-danesh Publication (In Persian).
  14. Herrmann, Christoph & Dornacher, Corinna (2017), International and European Monetary Law: An Introduction, Switzerland, Springer.
  15. Islam, Rumana (2018), The Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) Standard in International Investment Arbitration; Developing Countries in Context, Singapore, Springer.
  16. Onyema, Emilia (2010), International Commercial Arbitration and the Arbitrator’s Contract, London and New York, Routledge.
  17. Seidl-Hohenveldern, Ignaz (2012), International Economic Law, translated by: S. Ghasem Zamani, Tehran: the SD Institute of Law Research & Study (In Persian).
  18. Subedi, Surya P. (2008), International Investment Law; Reconciling Policy and Principle, Oxford, Hart Publishing.


  1. B) Articles
  2. Akerlof, A. (1970), “The Market for Lemons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 488-500.
  3. Brummer, Chris (2012), “Why Soft Law Dominates International Finance-and not Trade”, in: Thomas Cottier, John H. Jackson, and Rosa M. Lastra, International Law in Financial Regulation and Monetary Affairs, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 95-113.
  4. Curtin, Deirdre & Albert J. Meijer (2006), “Does transparency strengthen legitimacy? A critical analysis of European Union policy documents”, Information Polity, Vol. 11, pp. 109–122.
  5. Fallon Jr., Richard H. (1997), “"The Rule of Law" as a Concept in Constitutional Discourse”, Columbia Law Review, Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 1-56.
  6. Finke, Jasper (2014). “Concepts, Hybridization, Principles, and the Rule of Law: New Literature on International Monetary and Financial Law”, Int'l J. Const. L. Vol. 12, No. 4, 1054-1070.
  7. Ghamami, Majid & Mohseni, Hassan (2013), “About Some Innovations and Weaknesses of Principles of Transnational of Civil Procedure”, Private Law Studies Quarterly, Vol. 43, Issue 2, pp. 39-58 (In Persian).
  8. Hosseiniazad, S. Ali & Ebrahimi, Zahra (2014), “A Challenge for States: Adherence to Human Rights Obligations or Performance of Requirements Established by Security Council’, Journal of Culmination of Law, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 113-150 (In Persian).
  9. Kaufmann, C. & Weber, R.H. (2010),“The Role of Transparency in Financial Regulation”, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 779-797.
  10. Kaufmann, Christine & Weber, Rolf H. (2012), “The Role of Transparency in Financial Regulation”, in: Thomas Cottier, John H. Jackson, and Rosa M. Lastra (eds), International Law in Financial Regulation and Monetary Affairs, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 237-253.
  11. -------------------------------------------- (2014), “Transparency and monetary affairs”, in: Thomas Cottier and others (eds), The Rule of Law in Monetary Affairs; World Trade Forum, New York, Cambridge University Press, pp. 462-489.
  12. Klaaren, Jonathan (2013), “The Human Right to Information and Transparency”, in: Bianchi, Andrea and Anne C. Peters (eds), Transparency in International Law, New York, Cambridge University Press, pp. 223-238.
  13. Laverde, Santiago D. (2011), “Analysis of the Principle of Transparency with Special Reference to Its Implications for the Procedure of International Investment Arbitration”, Criterio Jurídico Santiago de Cali, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 105-134.
  14. Micklitz, Hans-W. (2018), “Consumer Law in the Digital Economy”, in: Toshiyuki Kono and others (eds), Transnational Commercial and Consumer Law; Current Trends in International Business Law, Singapore, Springer, pp. 111-152.
  15. Mirabbasi, S. Bagher & Mohammadi, Aghil (2017), “The Role and Function of International Non-Governmental Organizations as a "Friend of the Court" in the International System of Disputes Settlement”, Public Law Studies Quarterly, Vol. 46, Issue 4, pp. 753-769 (In Persian).
  16. Norton, Joseph J. (2001), “International Financial Institutions and the Movement Toward Greater Accountability and Transparency: The Case of Legal Reform Programmes and the Problem of Evaluation”, the International Lawyer, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 1443-1474.
  17. Peters, Anne (2015), “The Transparency Turn of International Law”, The Chinese Journal of Global Governance, Vol. 1, pp. 3-15.
  18. Rogers, Catherine A. (2006), “Transparency in International Commercial Arbitration”, U. Kan. L. Rev., Vol. 54, pp. 1301-1337.
  19. Rosett, Arthur (1992), “Unification, Harmonization, Restatement, Codification, and Reform in International Commercial Law”, the American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 683-697.
  20. Ruscalla, Gabriele (2015), “Transparency in International Arbitration: Any (Concrete) Need to Codify the Standard?”, Groningen Journal of International Law, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-26.
  21. Sabater, Aníbal (2010), “Towards Transparency in Arbitration (A Cautious Approach)”, Berkeley Journal of International Law Publicist, Vol. 5, pp. 47-53.
  22. the American Law Institute (2004), “UNIDROIT Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure”, Unif. L. Rev., Vol. 4, pp. 758-808.
  23. Zöllner, Carl-Sebastian (2006), “Transparency: An Analysis of an Evolving Fundamental Principle in International Economic Law”, Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 27, Issue 2, pp. 579-628.


  1. C) Documents
  2. Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies: Declaration of Principles, September 26, 1999
  3. Council of the International Bar Association, IBA Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in International Arbitration, 2004
  4. Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market
  5. G20, ‘Declaration of the Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy’, 15 November 2008, Washington, DC, para. 9. Available at: (last visited on: 19/12/2019)
  6. IMF factsheet, Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies, September 2015, available at: (last visited on: 19/12/2019)
  7. IMF, How Does the IMF Encourage Greater Fiscal Transparency?, March 13, 2019, an online article available at official website of IMF: (last visited on: 18/12/2019)
  8. the communication, COM (2016) 50, of the Commission on an action plan for strengthening the fight against terrorist financing, p. 10, available at: (last visited on: 22/12/2019)


  1. D) ICSID Cases
  2. Azurix Corp. v. Argentine Republic (ICSID Case No. ARB/01/12), Award (July 14, 2006)
  3. Metalclad Corporation v. United Mexican States (ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/97/1), Award of August 30, 2000
  4. Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona S.A. and Vivendi Universal S.A v. Argentine Republic (ICSID Case No. ARB/03/19), Order in Response to a Petition for Transparency and Participation as Amicus Curiae, (May 19, 2005).