دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه پیام نور، سمنان (مرکز گرمسار)، ایران

3 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این مقاله به تحلیل گسترۀ حق بر تعیین سرنوشت خلق‌ها در حقوق بین‌الملل در بحران جدایی‌طلبی ایالت کاتالان می‌پردازد. تمرکز نوشتار حاضر بر بررسی اعمال این قاعده در وضعیت‌های خارج از استعمار قرار گرفته است. درحالی‌که در مورد اعمال حق بر تعیین سرنوشت در وضعیت‌های ناشی از استعمار تردید وجود دارد و مردمان این سرزمین‌ها می‌توانند با اجرای این حق، دولتی برای خود ایجاد کنند، در مورد اعمال حق مزبور خارج از وضعیت‌های استعماری تردیدهای جدی ابزار شده است. در خصوص ایجاد حق بر جدایی چاره‌ساز نیز در حقوق بین‌الملل اجماع کافی وجود ندارد. در این پژوهش با بررسی حقوق عرفی و مهم‌ترین اسناد بین‌المللی ناظر بر حق تعیین سرنوشت، وضعیت ایالت به‌ویژه از رهگذر اعمال حق قومیت کاتالان در اسپانیا برای ایجاد دولت جدید مورد بررسی حقوقی قرار گرفته و در نهایت نتیجه‌ گرفته شده است که استناد مقامات کاتالان به این حق برای رسیدن به استقلال در وضعیت فعلی نمی‌تواند در حقوق بین‌الملل به‌عنوان جدایی چاره‌ساز مورد قبول قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Catalan Separatism from the Viewpoint of the Right of Self-Determination in International Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Karamzadeh 1
  • Massoud Alizadeh 2
  • Shahram Zarneshan 3

1 AM. student of International Law, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of International Law, Department of Law, Payam Noor University, Semnan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of law and Political Science, Allameh tabataba’I University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

This article analyzes the crisis of secession in the Catalan region of Spsin in terms of  the right to self-determination in international law. The focus of this paper is on the application of this rule to non-colonial situations. While applying the right to self-determination in colonial situation is well-established and the people of these lands can create their own government under this rule, serious doubts have been raised about the right of self-determination outside the colonial situations. There is no consensus about the right to remedial secession under international law. This article tries to examine the customary law and the most important international instruments dealing with the right to self-determination, in particular the right of Catalan ethnic minority in Spain to form a new state. It is concluded that the Catalan authorities’ reliance on this right for declaring independence faces serious legal difficulties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Catalonia
  • Self-determination
  • remedial secession
  • unilateral secession
  • Resolution 2625
  • Spain
  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

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ب) مقالات

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  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Books
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  1. B) Articles
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  1. C) Documents
  2. AG/R/1514 (XV), UN Doc. A/4684 (1961).
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  4. A/RES/50/6, 9 Nov. (1995).
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  6. ICJ Reports, (1995).
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  8. ICJ Reports, (1986), Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua.
  9. I.C.J Reports, (1971), LEGAL CONSEQUENCES FOR STATES OF THE CONTINUED PRESENCE OF SOUTH AFRICA IN NAMIBIA (SOUTH WEST AFRICA) NOTWITHSTANDING SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 276 (1970).
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  13. UN Doc. A/RES/56/83, (21 Dec. 2001).