Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. candidate, Department of Private Law, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Private Law, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Private Law, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


With the adoption of the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) on personal data protection in 2016 and its entry into force in 2018, all EU member states are required to provide maximum protection of personal data to individuals. The maximum protections of this regulation are expressed in various provisions, which are clearer, stricter and more practical compared to previous legal frameworks of the EU and other countries. One of the most important aspects of personal data protection is the flow of different rights to the data-subjects. In several articles, the EU regulation refers to the rights of data-subjects for the effective protection of their personal data. Given the importance of personal data and data-subjects protection and citizens’ rights to such protection, the need to examine this issue is also felt in regard to the Iranian legal system. In this paper, by explaining the said European regulation, it will be shown that although under Iranian law some rights of the data-subjects are protected, not all of these rights are provable and the existing rights are not without flaws. Therefore, there is a need for legal clarification on this subject.


Main Subjects

  1. Englsih

    1. A) Books
    2. Voigt, Paul & Von dem Bussche, Axel (2017), The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Springer International Publishing.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Chassang, Gauthier & Southerington, Tom & Boeckhout, Martim & Slokenberga, Santa (2018), “Data Portability in Health Research and Biobanking: Legal Benchmarks for Appropriate Implementation”, European Data Protection Law Review, 3, pp.297–307.
    3. Finck, Michele (2018),“Blockchains and Data Protection in the European Union”, European Data Protection Law Review, pp.17–35.
    4. Mittal, Sandeep (2017), "Old Wine with a New Label: Rights of Data Subjects Under GDPR", SSRN Electronic Journal (pp. 67–71).
    5. Politou, Eugenia & Alepis, Efthimios & Patsakis, Constantinos (2018), "Forgetting personal data and revoking consent under the GDPR: Challenges and proposed solutions", Journal of Cybersecurity, 4(1), 1–20.
    6. Purtova, Nadezhda (2015), "The illusion of personal data as no one’s property", Law, Innovation and Technology, Vol.7, No.1, pp.1–29.
    7. Singh, Atul (2016). "Protecting Personal Data as a Property Right", ILI Law Review, Winter Issue, pp.123–139.
    8. Wagner, Julian & Benecke, Alexander (2017), National Legislation within the Framework of the GDPR. European Data Protection Law Review, Vol.2, No.3, pp.353–361.


    1. C) Cases
    2. CURIA. (n.d.-a). Case C‑131/12,2014. Retrieved May 1, 2021, from
    3. CURIA. (n.d.-b). Case C‑40/17,2019. Retrieved May 2, 2021, from;jsessionid=AFE04EA373C92E5A70CD8AEFCC681997?text=&docid=216555&pageIndex=0&doclang=EN&mode=lst&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=5109289
    4. CURIA. (n.d.-c). Case C‑553/07. Retrieved May 19, 2021, from


    1. D) Thesis
    2. Eija, Saaranen. (2018), Applying General Data Protection Regulation In Small Organizations Simplified Framework and Templates for Managing a Privacy. School of Business and Culture.
    3. Reini, Pasi (2019). GDPR implementation Case: Headpower Oy [University of Transport and Communications].



    1. E) Statute
    2. EUR-Lex. (2016), Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation – GDPR). Official Journal of the European Union, 1–88.


    1. F) Generic
    2. BNA. (2016), The Final European Union General Data Protection Regulation. Security Privacy and Law Report, 1–14.
    3. Jarvis, Lee (2019), The Age of Big Data Analytics: A cross-national comparison of the implementation of Article 23 of the GDPR in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy (pp. 1–50).


    1. G) Websites
    2. European Commission. (n.d.), Questions and Answers – General Data Protection Regulation. Retrieved February 13, 2020, from
    3. European Commission. (2018a). Can I ask a company/organisation to send me my personal data so that I can use it somewhere else? | European Commission.
    4. European Commission. (2018b), Can I ask a company/organisation to stop processing my personal data?
    5. European Commission. (2018c), Can I ask a company to delete my personal data? | European Commission. Data Protection Law.
    6. European Commission. (2018d), Can I be subject to automated individual decision-making, including profiling? | European Commission.
    7. European Commission. (2018e), How can I access my personal data held by a company / organisation? | European Commission.
    8. European Commission. (2018f), What are my rights? | European Commission.
    9. European Commission. (2018g), When should I exercise my right to restriction of processing of my personal data?
    10. ICO. (2018), Right to object.
    11. Practical Law. (n.d.), Recital (EU). Retrieved August 11, 2020, from


    References In Persian & Arabic:

    1. A) Books
    2. Amid Zanjani, Abbas Ali (2012), General Rules of Contracts in the Book of Al-Baya Val-Motaajer, Tehran: Khorsandi Publishing (In Arabic).
    3. Ayazi, Mohammad Ali (2010), Criteria of Rulings and Methods of Its Exploration, Qom: Qom Seminary Islamic Propaganda Office (In Persian).
    4. Fazel Lankarani, Mohammad Javad (2017), Makaseb Muharama, Vol. 2, Qom: Jurisprudential Center of the Imams (peace be upon them) (In Persian).
    5. Katozian, Nasser (2016), General principles of contracts, Vol. 3, Tehran: Enteshar Publication Co (In Persian).
    6. Makarem Shirazi, Nasser. (2006). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Jurisprudence, Vol. 2, Qom: Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib School (PBUH) (In Persian).
    7. Mirza Qomi, Abolghasem bin Mohammad Hassan (1992), Jame Al-Shattat, Vol. 4, Tehran: Kayhan (In Persian).
    8. Montazeri, Hossein Ali (1988), the jurisprudential principles of the Islamic government (Derasat Fi Velayat Al- Faqih Va Fiqh Al-Dolat Al-Islami: Studies in the Juris Consult Leader and Jurisprudence of the Islamic Government), Vol. 5, Qom: Keyhan Publishing (In Persian).