Document Type : Article


1 Associate Prof., Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The right to humane treatment when deprived of liberty is a fundamental human right that was enshrined in Article 10 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights for the first time. Since deprivation of liberty leads to vulnerability and violates the individual’s dignity, it is considered necessary for respecting the inherent dignity of humans. International human rights instruments have not defined this concept, as only the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment or punishment has been mentioned in the said instruments. However, this prohibition is just a minimum commitment for the protection of persons deprived of liberty. Ensuring humane treatment of individuals deprived of liberty needs a higher level of commitment and adequate actions from governments.


  1. A) Books
  2. Abbasi, Bizhan (2011), Hoghoogh-e-Bashar va Azadihy-e-Bonyadin Tehran, Dadgostar Publication (In Persian).
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  21. B) Articles
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  1. C) Judgments

C-1) International Court of Justice

  1. Ahmadou Sadio Diallo (Republic of Guinea v. Democratic Republic of the Congo), 30 November 2010
  2. Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal), 20 July2012


C-2) European Court of Human Rights

  1. Ireland v United Kingdom, Ser.A, No.25, 18 January 1978
  2. Harakchiev and Tolumov v. Bulgaria, Nos. 15018/11 and 61199/12, 8 July 2014
  3. Shelley v The United Kingdom, No.23800/06, 4 January 2008
  4. Mozer v. The Republic of Moldova and Russia, No. 11138/10,23 February 2016
  5. Pakhomov v Russia, No. 44917/08,30 September 2010
  6. Blokhin v. Russia, No. 47152/06, 23 March 2016


C- 3) African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights

  1. Communication Nos.54/91, 61/91, 98/93, and 210/98, Malawi African Association and Others v Mauritania, 2000
  2. Communication 292/04: Institute for Human Rights and Development in Africa v Angola , May 2008
  3. Communication 368/09 – Abdel Hadi, Ali Radi & Others v Republic of Sudan, 2013


C-4) American Court of Human Rights

  1. Montero Aranguren et al v Venezuela, 5 July 2006
  2. Diaz Pena v Venezuela,26 June 2012
  3. Espinoza Gonzales v Peru, 20 November 2014
  4. J. v Peru, 27 November 2013


C-5) International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavi

  1. Prosecutor v Delalic et al., Case No.IT-96-21-T,16 November 1998


  1. D) Reports
  2. Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT), Jean-Jacques Gautier NPM Symposium Addressing children’s vulnerabilities in detention,2014
  3. European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT):
  4. 9th General Report, 1999
  5. 11th General Report,2001
  6. 21st General Report,2011
  7. 24th General Report, 2015


  1. E) UN Documents
  2. Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law, A/RES/60/147, 16 December 2005
  3. Committee against Torture, Concluding Observations: USA, UN Doc. CAT/C/USA/CO/2 (2006)
  4. Human rights committee, General Comment No. 20, UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 30, 1994
  5. Human rights committee, McCallum v. South Africa, UN Doc. CCPR/C/100/D-1818/2008 (2010)
  6. Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, A/RES/57/199, 8 December 2002
  7. UN Special Rapporteur on torture, UN Doc. A/66.268, 5 August 2011
  8. World Health Organization (Regional Office for Europe) Health in Prison Project, Consensus Statement on Mental Health Promotion in Prisons, 1998



  1. www.cpt.