Document Type : Article


1 Associate Prof. Department of Law, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D student in International Law, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran


Common Article 1 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the First Additional Protocol, open a new chapter on the concept and nature of states obligations to respect and ensure respect for humanitarian law in the occupied territories and impose binding obligations on occupying states. The present research, aims to answer the following question: the responsibility of the Israeli occupying forces to fight and prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the occupied Palestinian territories are organized and justified on what legal and intellectual foundations? Using a descriptive-analytical method, the paper provides a legal analysis of the existing facts. It is believed that despite the commitments of the occupying Israeli forces to ensure respect for international humanitarian law under Common Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions in terms of preventing and fighting COVID-19 as a vital example of the right to health and the protection of public health of the inhabitants of the occupied Palestinian territories, ensuring the actual implementation of these fundamental human rights faces serious challenges.




    1. A) Books
    2. Fleck, Dieter (2009), The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press.
    3. Henckaerts, Jean Marie & Doswald-Beck,L, (2005), Customary internayional law, Vol. I(Rules), Vol.II(Practice), International Committee of Red-Cross, Cambridge/New York: Cambridg University Press.
    4. Longobardo, Marco (2018), The Use of Armed Force in Occupied Territory, Cambridge University Press, University of Westminster.
    5. S.Pictect, Jean (1960), Commentary on the IV Geneva Convention, Publication if the ICRC.
    6. Sandoz, Yves; Roberts, Adam (1987), Commentary on the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, with the collaboration of Jean pictect, International Committee of Red Cross.
    7. Toebes, Brigit, Towards (1999), an Improved understanding of the International Human Right to Health, 21 HRQ 661.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Greenwood, Christopher (2008), “Historical Development and Legal Basis, in: The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law”, Dieter Felck (ed.),2nd ed., Oxford University Press.
    3. Kalshoven, Frits (1999), “The Undertaking to Respect and Ensure Respect in All Circumstances: from Tiny Seed to Ripeninig Fruit”, YIHL publications, Vol. 2, pp. 11ss.
    4. Longobardo, Marco (2020), “The Duties of Occupying Powers in Relation to the Fight against Covid-19”, Blog of the European Journal of International Law, Vol. 18, No. 3.
    5. Sassoli,Marco (2007), “Implementation of international humanitarian law: Current and inherent Challenge”, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol 10.
    6. Wolfrum, Rudiger & Felck, Dieter (2008),“Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law”, in: The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law, Dieter Felck (ed.), 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.


    1. D) Instruments
    2. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health (NY: Oxford University Press), 1993.
    3. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), (8 June 1977)
    4. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, (Protocol II), (8 June 1977)
    5. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, (17 July 1998)
    6. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, (22 May 1969).
    7. Fourth Geneva Conventions, (12 August 1949).
    8. Res. 2005/7, (2005), UN Commission on Human Rights.
    9. A/RES/32/90,1977:4 and Res. 2005/7,2005:5, UN General Assembly.
    10. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, (16 December 1966).
    11. Charter of the United Nations (26 June 1945)
    12. Universal Decleration of Human Right(10 December 1948)
    13. Internation Convent On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights, (16 December 1966
    14. Statute of the World Health Organization, ( 6Apr 1948).
    15. International Health Regulations, (2005).
    16. International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, (30 November 1973).
    17. Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annex to the Hagu Convention(IV) respecting the Laws and Customs if the War on land, the Hague, (18 October 1907).
    18. Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, (The Hague, 29 July 1899).


    1. E) Websites
    2., Rules of Customary International Humanitarian Law.

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    2. E3BFD67926CE0BF856E08277D6218C7C#:~:text=This%20book%20explores%20the%20international,and%20international%20human%20rights%20law.


    Refrences In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Momtaz, Jamshid and Ranjbarian, Amir Hossein, (2007), International Humanitarian Law, Internal Armed Conflict, Tehran, Mizan Publications, First Edition (In Persian).
    3. Momtaz, Jamshid, Shayegan F (2018), International Humanitarian Law Facing Challenges of Contemporary Armed Confilicts, Tehran: The SHahr-e-Dnesh Law (In Persian).
    4. Saberi,Hengameh (1999), Sanction in International Humanitarian Law: States' Obligation in ensuring report of international humanitarian Law, Tehran, Judiciary Publications (In Persian).
    5. Saed, Nader (2014), International Humanitarian Law: the Recent Development(Post-Modern Wars), Tehran: Khorsandi Publication (In Persian).
    6. Siahrostami, Hajar(2015), International Law of Occupation, Tehran: Khorsandi Publication (In Persian).
    7. Zamani, Seyed Qasem (2002), International Humanitarian Law: the Occupation of Iranian Territories in the Imposed War, Tehran: Shahrdanesh Publication (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Bagherzadeh, rezvan & ranjbarian amir hossein (2015), “The Foundation of International Humanitarian Law Enforcement: State Obligations to Respect and to Ensure Respect”, Public Law, Vol. 16, No. 46, publications (In Persian).
    3. Dehghani, Poudeh (2008), “Developments in Gaza from the Perspective of International Humanitarian Law”, Journal of Foreign Policy, Vol. 12, No.3, publications (In Persian).
    4. Mosavi Mirkolae, Seyed Taha (2013),“ Implementations and Sanctions of International Humanitarian Law with Emphasis on Common Article 1 of Geneva Conventions 1949”, Public Law, Vol. 77, No. 83, publications (In Persian).
    5. Sharifi Tarazkouhi, Hossein & Sayyadnejad, Mohammad Hossein (2020), “Application of Fundamental Principles of International Humanitarian Law on Fully Autonomous Weapons as New Mean of War”, Public Law Studies Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 2, publications (In Persian).
    6. 11. Ziaii Bigdeli, Mohammadreza (2004),“Gender based International Committee responsible illicit violated human rights and humanitarian”, The Judicirys Law Journal, Vol. 6, No. 13, publications (In Persian).